Streptococcus parasanguinis
  1. Whiley R.A., Fraser H.Y., Douglas C.W.I., Hardie J.M., Williams A.M. & Collins M.D.: Streptococcus parasanguis sp. nov., an atypical
    viridans Streptococcus from human clinical specimens. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 1990, 68, 115-122.
  2. Truper H.G. & De' Clari L.: Taxonomic note: Necessary correction of specific epithets formed as substantives (nouns) "in
    apposition". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1997, 47, 908-909.
  3. Martin Dworkin, Stanley Falkow, Eugene Rosenberg: The Prokaryotes: Vol. 4: Bacteria: Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, 2006.
  4. Robert A. Whiley and Jeremy M. Hardie, 2009. Genus I. Streptococcus Rosenbach 1884, 22AL. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D.
    Jones, N.R. Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3:
    The Firmicutes, Springer, 655-711.
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Streptococcaceae, Genus Streptococcus, Streptococcus parasanguinis  
corrig. Whiley et al. 1990 (formerly S. parasanguis).
Member of the "Mitis group".
React with group F, C, G or B Lancefield antisera. Non-groupable strains may occur.
Gram-positive, 0.8-1.0 μm in diameter, nonmotile, nonspore-forming cocci.
Colonies are alpha-haemolytic on sheep blood agar.
Facultatively anaerobic, optimal growth at 37.0 ºC. Grows on: Trypticase soy agar with
5% defibrinated sheep blood. Most strains grow at 45 ºC and in the presence of 40%
bile but not in the presence of 4% NaCl.
Isolated from human throat, blood and urine; ovine clinical samples.
May cause subclinical mastitis in sheep; involved in dental plaque forming in humans.
Hydrogen peroxide is produced.
Extracellular polysaccharide is not produced.

Positive results for alpha & beta-galactosidase, alpha-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, arginine hydrolysis, acid production from  
fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, maltose, melibiose, N-acetylglucosamine, raffinose,  salicin & sucrose.

Negative results for catalase, hyaluronidase, neuraminidase, pyrrolidonyl arylamidase, sialidase, urease, Voges-Proskauer reaction,
acid production from: adonitol, arabinose, glycerol, glycogen, inulin, mannitol, melezitose & xylose.

Variable results for fucosidase, beta-glucosidase, esculin hydrolysis, acid production from: arbutin, cellobiose, raffinose, salicin &
trehalose.
(c) Costin Stoica
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