Proteus terrae
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Enterobacterales, Family Morganellaceae, Genus Proteus, Proteus
Behrendt et al. 2016. Subspecies:
Proteus terrae subsp. cibarius (Hyun et al. 2016) Behrendt et al. 2021,
Proteus terrae subsp. terrae (Behrendt et al. 2016) Behrendt et al. 2021.
Gram-negative, straight rods, 0.4-0.8 x 1.0-3.0 μm, occuring singly or in pairs. Motile by peritrichous flagella; swarming. Asporogenous.
Growth occurs at 10-37 ºC, at pH 5-9, and with 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl. Motile. Facultatively

Subsp. terrae
Cells swarm with periodic cycles or spread in a uniform film over the surface of
nutrient agar at 21 ºC but form single colonies at 37 ºC. No growth at 4 ºC. Colonies
on nutrient agar are smooth and beige in colour. Not diazotrophic  - unable to grow on
nitrogen-free Azotobacter-medium.

Subsp. cibarius
Colonies are translucent, circular, raised, white with an entire margin, and a diameter
of 0.8-1.1 mm after 2 days on NA at 30 ºC. Growth occurs at 10-37 ºC (optimum 30
ºC), at pH 5-10 (optimum pH 7), and with 0-12 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2 %).
Subsp. terrae was isolated from fen peat soil of a nitrogen fertilization long-term experiment in Paulinenaue (Germany).
Subsp cibarius was isolated  from Jeotgal, a traditional Korean fermented seafood.
  1. Behrendt U, Augustin J, Sproer C, Gelbrecht J, Schumann P, Ulrich A. Taxonomic characterisation of Proteus terrae sp. nov., a N2O-
    producing, nitrate-ammonifying soil bacterium. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2015; 108:1457-1468.
  2. Hyun DW, Jung MJ, Kim MS, Shin NR, Kim PS, Whon TW, Bae JW. Proteus cibarius sp. nov., a swarming bacterium from Jeotgal,
    a traditional Korean fermented seafood, and emended description of the genus Proteus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2016; 66:2158-
  3. Behrendt U, Wende S, Kolb S, Ulrich A. Genome-based phylogeny of the genera Proteus and Cosenzaea and description of
    Proteus terrae subsp. terrae subsp. nov. and Proteus terrae subsp. cibarius subsp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2019; 71:0.
  4. Dai H, Chen A, Wang Y, Lu B, Wang Y, Chen J, Huang Y, Li Z, Fang Y, Xiao T, et al. Proteus faecis sp. nov., and Proteus cibi sp.
    nov., two new species isolated from food and clinical samples in China. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2019; 69:852-858.
Subsp. terrae
Positive results for catalase, H2S production, indole production, nitrate and nitrite reduction, methyl red test, phenylalanine
deaminase, urease, acid production from N-acetylglucosamine, D-arabinose, alpha-methyl D-glucoside, D-galactose, D-glucose,
glycerol, gluconate, 2-ketogluconate, D-maltose, D-melezitose, L-rhamnose, D-ribose, D-saccharose, D-trehalose, D-turanose, and
Can utilize (Biolog GN) Tween 80, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, D-galactose, glucose, maltose, L-rhamnose,
sucrose, D-trehalose, turanose, methyl pyruvate, monomethyl-succinate, acetic acid, formic acid, D-gluconic acid, alpha-keto glutaric
acid, D,L-lactic acid, sebacic acid, succinic acid, bromo succinic acid, L-alaninamide, D- and L-alanine, L-alanylglycine, L-
asparagine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, glycyl-L-aspartic acid, glycyl-L-glutamic acid, L-leucine, L-phenylalanine, L-proline, L-
pyroglutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, D,L-carnitine, gamma-amino butyric acid, inosine, uridine, thymidine, 2-
aminoethanol, glycerol, D,L-alpha-glycerol phosphate, and glucose-6-phosphate.

Negative results for arginine dihydrolase, citrate utilization, DN-ase, esculin hydrolysis, lysine decarboxylase, beta-galactosidase,
ornithine decarboxylase, oxidase, acid production from D-adonitol, amygdalin, arbutin, L-arabinose, D- and L-arabitol,D-cellobiose,
dulcitol, erythritol, D-fructose, D- and L-fucose, gentiobiose, glycogen, m-inositol, inulin, 5-ketogluconate, D-lactose, D-lyxose, D-
mannitol, D-mannose, D-melibiose, alpha-methyl D-glucoside, alpha-methyl D-mannoside, D-raffinose, salicin, D-sorbitol, L-
sorbose, starch, D-tagatose, xylitol and L-xylose.

No utilization of alpha-cyclodextrin, glycogen, adonitol, L-arabinose, D-arabitol, cellobiose, i-erythritol, D-fructose, L-fucose,
gentiobiose, m-inositol, alpha-lactose, lactulose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, D-melibiose, beta-methyl-D-glucoside, D-psicose, D-
raffinose, D-sorbitol, xylitol, cis-aconitic acid, citric acid, D-galactonic acid lactone, D-galacturonic acid, D-glucosaminic acid, D-
glucuronic acid, bea- and gamma-hydroxy butyric acid, p-hydroxy phenylacetic acid, itaconic acid, alpha-keto butyric acid,
alpha-keto valeric acid, malonic acid, propionic acid, quinic acid, D-saccharic acid, succinamic acid, glucuronamide, L-histidine,
hydroxy-L-proline, L-ornithine, urocanic acid, phenyl ethylamine, putrescine, 2,3-butanediol, and glucose-1-phosphate.

Variable results for gelatinase and utilization of acetic acid, sebacic acid, L-alaninamide, gamma-amino butyric acid, and alpha-
hydroxy butyric acid.

Subsp. cibarius
Positive results for acid and alkaline phosphatase, catalase, alpha-glucosidase, indole production, protease, leucine arylamidase,
nitrate reduction,  naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, trypsin, urease, valine arylamidase, acid production from D-arabinose, D-
fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose, glycerol, gluconate, 2-ketogluconate, maltose, D-melezitose, methyl alpha-D-glucoside, N-
acetylglucosamine, D-ribose, sucrose, trehalose, turanose, and D-xylose.
Can utilize L-arabinose, formic acid, maltose, L-ornithine, D-mannose, L-histidine, hydroxy-L-proline, dextrin, glycogen, gamma-
hydroxybutyric acid, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, cellobiose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, pyruvic acid methyl ester, sucrose, D-galactose,
turanose, D-fructose, succinic acid monomethyl ester, alpha-D-glucose, D-gluconic acid, acetic acid, alpha-hydroxybutyric
acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, alpha-ketobutyric acid, DL-lactic acid, bromosuccinic acid, succinic acid, succinamic acid, D-alanine, L-
alaninamide, L-alanine, L-asparagine, L-alanylglycine, L-aspartic acid, glycyl-L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, glycylL-glutamic acid, L-
phenylalanine, L-leucine, L-pyroglutamic acid, L-proline, D-serine, L-threonine, L-serine, DL-alpha-glycerol phosphate, thymidine,
uridine, glycerol, D-glucose 6-phosphate and inosine.

Negative results for alpha-fucosidase, arginine dihydrolase, citrate utilization, cystine arylamidase, alpha-chymotrypsin, esculin
hydrolysis, esterase (C4), esterase lipase (C8), lipase (C14), alpha- and beta-galactosidase, beta-glucuronidase, beta-glucosidase,
N-acetyl-betaglucosaminidase, alpha-mannosidase, oxidase, acid production from arbutin, esculin, salicin, erythritol, L-arabinose, L-
xylose, D-adonitol, methyl-beta-D-xyloside, D-mannose, L-sorbose, L-rhamnose, dulcitol, inositol, D-mannitol, D-sorbitol, methyl-
alpha-D-mannoside, amygdalin, D-cellobiose, D-lactose, D-melibiose, inulin, D-raffinose, starch, glycogen, xylitol, gentiobiose, D-
lyxose, D-tagatose, D-fucose, L-fucose, D-arabitol, L-arabitol, 5-ketogluconate.
No utilization of alpha-cyclodextrin, Tween 40, Tween 80, adonitol, D-arabitol, i-erythritol, L-fucose, gentiobiose, m-inositol, alpha-D-
lactose, lactulose, D-mannitol, Dmelibiose, D-psicose, L-rhamnose, D-sorbitol, xylitol, D-galactonic acid lactone, D-glucosaminic
acid, D-glucuronic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, phydroxy phenylacetic acid, itaconic acid, alpha-keto valeric acid, malonic acid,
propionic acid, quinic acid, D-saccharic acid, sebacic acid, glucuronamide, DL-carnitine, γ-amino butyric acid, urocanic acid,
phenylethylamine, putrescine, 2-aminoethanol, 2,3-butanediol, alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate, L-arabinose, D-mannose, D-mannitol,
D-maltose, capric acid, adipic acid, and phenylacetic acid.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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