Phylum “Actinobacteria”, Class Actinobacteria, Order Bifidobacteriales, Family Bifidobacteriaceae, Genus Bifidobacterium,
Bifidobacterium subtile Biavati, Scardovi, Moore, 1982.
Straight or bent rods, 0.5-2.1 x 2-4.5 µm, smaller coccoid cells or longer, branching,
bifid, knobbed and club forms, occur singly, in pairs or in short chains.
Colonies are smooth, slightly raised, entire edges, translucent, colorless, shiny,
punctiform on blood agar incubated anaerobically. Dense turbidity with a granular or
flocculent sediment is produced in broth with carbohydrates that are fermented; slight
to moderate turbidity is produced without a fermentable carbohydrate. Optimum
growth temperature 34-35.5 ºC. Anaerobic.
Isolated from sewage, wastewater and from caries lesions.
Isolated from caries lesions.
- Biavati B, Mattarelli P, 2012. Genus I. Bifidobacterium Orla-Jensen 1924. In: Parte et al. (ed). Bergey’s manual of systematic
bacteriology: The Actinobacteria,Part A and B. Springer, New York, 171-206.
- Biavati B, Scardovi V, Moore WEC, 1982. Electrophoretic patterns of proteins in the genus Bifidobacterium and proposal of four new
species. Int J Syst Bacteriol 32, 358-373.
- Scardovi V and Trovatelli LD, 1974. Bifidobacterium animalis (Mitsuoka) comb. nov. and the “minimum” and “subtile” groups of new
bifidobacteria found in sewage. Int J Syst Bacteriol 24(1) 21-28.
- Alberoni D, Gaggia F, Baffoni L, Modesto MM, Biavati B, Di Gioia D, 2019. Bifidobacterium xylocopae sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium
aemilianum sp. nov., from the carpenter bee (Xylocopa violacea) digestive tract. Syst Appl Microbiol 42, 205-216.
Positive results for alkaline phosphatase, alpha- and beta-galactosidase, alpha- and beta-glucosidase, histidine arylamidase,
proline arylamidase, tyrosine arylamidase, Voges-Proskauer test, acid production from dextrin, D-fructose, D-galactosamine, D-
galactose, glucose, gluconate, D-glucosamine, glycogen, maltose, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, D-sorbitol, starch, sucrose and
Negative results for alanine arylamidase, catalase, alpha-fucosidase, gelatin hydrolysis, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, indole
production, nitrate reduction, acid production from amygdalin, L-arabinose, esculin, D- and L-fucose, D-glucuronate, glycerol,
gentibiose, D-lactose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, porcine gastric mucin, rhamnose, xylose and xylan.
Ammonia is not produced from arginine.
Variable results for acid production from amylose, amylopectin, cellobiose, inulin, pectin, D-ribose, salicin and trehalose.
(c) Costin Stoica