|Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens *
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Paenibacillaceae, Genus Paenibacillus, Paenibacillus larvae subsp.
pulvifaciens (Nakamura 1984) Heyndrickx et al. 1996, comb.nov.
Historical synonyms: Bacillus pulvifaciens (ex Katznelson 1950) Nakamura 1984, Bacillus pulvifaciens (Katznelson 1950),
Paenibacillus pulvifaciens (Nakamura 1984) Ash et al. 1994.
* Note: Recently the existence of two subspecies (P. larvae subsp. larvae and P. larvae subsp pulvifaciens has been reconsidered
by Genersch et al. (2006), who proposed reclassification into a single species based on a polyphasic study encompassing more
strains than the former studies and by which the former subspecies discrepancies based on PAGE profiling of cell proteins became
We are keeping the P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens description only for its historical value.
See Paenibacillus larvae page for updated information.
Gram-positive, 0.3-0.7 / 1.5-3 μm bacillus. Motility is variable (15-49% of strains are
motile). Ellipsoidal, central or paracentral spore, swelling the sporangium. Spores
are produced after 5-7 days of incubation. Unpigmented or buff to red, thin and non-
spreading, up to 3 mm. diameter colonies on agar media.
Maximum temperature 40-45 ºC; minimum temperature 20 ºC. Grow on routine
media. Grow in anaerobic agar and in nutrient broth.
No growth in 5% NaCl, in 10% NaCl or at 5.7 pH.
Isolated from the dead larvae of honeybees.
Associated with powdery scale of the larvae of honeybees.
- Gordon R.E., Haynes W.C., Pang C.H. (1973) – The genus Bacillus . Agriculture Handbook No. 427, U.S.D.A., Washington D.C.
- Buchanan R.E., Gibbons N.E., Cowan S.T., Holt J.G., Liston J., Murray R.G.E., Niven C.F., Ravin A.W., Stanier R.W. ( 1974) – Bergey’
s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eight Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore.
- Euzeby J.P.: Dictionnaire de Bacteriologie Veterinaire.https://www.bacterio.cict.fr/bacdico/pp/panibacillus.html
- H. Katznelson: BACILLUS PULVIFACIENS (N. SP.), AN ORGANISM ASSOCIATED WITH POWDERY SCALE OF HONEYBEE
LARVAE. J Bacteriol. 1950 February; 59(2): 153–155.
- M. HEYNDRICKX, K. VANDEMEULEBROECKE, B. HOSTE, P. JANSSEN, l K. KERSTERS, P. DE VOS, N. A. LOGAN, N. ALI & R. C.
W. BERKELEY: Reclassification of Paenibacillus (formerly Bacillus) pulvifaciens (Nakamura 1984) Ash et al. 1994, a Later
Subjective Synonym of Paenibacillus (formerly Bacillus) larvae (White 1906) Ash et al. 1994, as a Subspecies of P. larvae, with
Emended Descriptions of P. larvae as P. larvae subsp. larvae and P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
SYSTEMATIC BACTERIOLOGY, Jan. 1996, p. 270-279.
- Priest F.G., 2009. Genus I. Paenibacillus Ash, Priest and Collins 1994. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Genersch E., Forsgren E., Pentikainen J., Ashiralieva A., Rauch S., Kilwinski J. and Fries I., 2006. Reclassification of
Paenibacillus larvae subsp. pulvifaciens and Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae as Paenibacillus larvae without subspecies
differentiation. IJSEM 56, 501-511.
Acid produced from glucose, mannitol, trehalose, fructose & lactose.
Acid not produced from maltose, saccharose, salicin, arabinose, xylose galactose & mannose.
Starch hydrolysis, urease, catalase, decomposition of tyrosine, Voges-Proskauer, citrate utilization & indole production are negative.
Reduction of nitrate to nitrite, decomposition of casein & resistance to lysozyme are positive.
(c) Costin Stoica