Bordetella avium
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Burkholderiales, Family Alcaligenaceae, Genus Bordetella, Bordetella avium
Kersters et al. 1984.
Gram-negative rods, 0.4-0.5 x 1.0-2.0 μm, arranged singly or in pairs. Motile by 5-8  
peritrichous flagella. Capsulated.
When grown on blood agar and VI agar, two distinct colony types may be produced:
type 1 - small, compact, and pearllike with entire edges and glistening surfaces, less
than 1 mm in diameter after 24 h of incubation, and  type 2 - larger, circular, and
convex with entire edges and smooth surfaces. Non-haemolytic. Optimum growth
temperature is 37 ºC. Can grow at 25 and 42 ºC. Strictly aerobic.
Colonies appear earlier (2-3 days) on Bordet–Gengou medium and are larger than
those of
B. pertussis or B. parapertussis.
Growth occurs on MacConkey agar, salmonella-shigella agar and nutrient agar. Poor
growth on citrate. Pigments are not produced.
Isolated from air sac, infraorbital sinus, trachea, lungs and liver of turkeys, chickens, ducks, geese and other birds.
Pathogenic for turkey poults (turkey coryza).
Few human cases of respiratory disease associated with
B. avium were recently reported in patients with cystic fibrosis.
  1. Alison Weiss: The Genus Bordetella in: The Prokaryotes. A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria, Third Edition, Volume 5:
    Proteobacteria: Alpha and Beta Subclasses, Martin Dworkin (Editor-in-Chief), 2006, Chapter 3.2.3, 648-674.
  2. Gary N. Sanden and Robbin S. Weyant: Genus III. Bordetella Moreno-Lopez 1952, 178AL in: Bergey's Manual of Systematic
    Bacteriology, vol. 2, part C: The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), 2005, 662-671.
  3. Kersters (K.), Hinz (K.H.), Hertle (A.), Segers (P.), Lievens (A.), Siegmann (O.) and De Ley (J.): Bordetella avium sp. nov., isolated
    from the respiratory tracts of turkeys and other birds. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1984, 34, 56-70.
  4. BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase. Sohngen C., Bunk B., Podstawka A., Gleim D., Vetcininova A., Reimer L.C.,
    Overmann J. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkv983. Epub 2015 Sep 30. PMID:  26424852.
  5. Harrington AT, Castellanos JA,  Ziedalski TM,  Clarridge JE 3rd, Cookson BT: Isolation of Bordetella avium and novel Bordetella
    strain from patients with respiratory disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 01 Jan 2009, 15(1):72-74.
Positive results for acid phosphatase, catalase, citrate (Simmons), esterase (C-4), esterase-lipase (C8) (weak),
L-leucyl-2-naphthylamide hydrolase, phosphoamidase (weak) & oxidase.
Can utilize fumarate (weak), glutarate (weak), succinate, 3-hydroxybutyrate (weak), DL-lactate, L-malate (weak), citrate (weak),
alpha-ketoglutarate (weak), pyruvate, L-aspartate, L-glutamate & L-proline (weak).

Negative results for N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-2-naphthylamide hydrolase (trypsin),
L-cystyl-2-naphthylamide hydrolase, esculin hydrolysis, alpha-L-fucosidase, gelatin hydrolysis, alpha- and beta-D-galactosidase,
alpha- and beta-D-glucosidase, beta-D-glucuronidase, indole production, lipase (C14), lysine decarboxylase, alpha-D-mannosidase,
nitrate reduction, denitrification, L-valyl-2-naphthylamide hydrolase, phenylalanine deaminase, tetrazolium reduction, urease, acid
production from glucose & xylose.
Negative for the utilization of  N-acetyl-glucosamine, amygdalin, D- and L-arabinose, arbutin, D-cellobiose, esculin, D-fructose,
D- and L-fucose, D-galactose, D-gentiobiose, D-gluconate, D-glucosamine, D-glucose, glycogen, inulin, 2- and 5-ketogluconate,
lactose, D-lyxose, D-maltose, D-mannose, D-melezitose, D-melibiose, methyl-alpha-D-glucoside, methyl-alpha-D-mannoside,
methyl-alpha-D-xyloside, raffinose, L-rhamnose, D-ribose, salicin, L-sorbose, starch, sucrose, D-tagatose, trehalose, D-turanose, D-
and L-xylose, adonitol, D- and L-arabitol, dulcitol, meso-erythritol, glycerol, meso-inositol, D-mannitol, sorbitol, meso-xylitol, butyrate,
caprate, n-caproate, caprylate, heptanoate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, pelargonate, propionate, n-valerate, azelate, maleate, malonate,
oxalate, pimelate, sebacate, suberate, DL-glycerate, glycolate, D-malate, D- and L-tartrate, meso-tartrate, aconitate, citraconate,
itaconate, levulinate, mesaconate, benzoate, o-hydroxybenzoate, m-hydroxybenzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, D- and L-mandelate,
phthalate, iso-phthalate, tere-phthalate, D- and L-alpha-alanine, beta-alanine, L-arginine, L-citrulline, L-cysteine, glycine, L-histidine,
L-isoleucine, DL-kynurenine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-methionine , L-norleucine, DL-norvaline , L-ornithine, L-phenylalanine, L-serine,
L-threonine, trigonelline, D-tryptophan, L-tryptophan, L-valine, acetamide, amylamine, benzylamine, betaine, butylamine, creatine,
diaminobutane, ethanolamine, ethylamine, histamine, sarcosine, spermine & tryptamine.

Variable results for alkaline phosphatase, arginine dihydrolase, chymotrypsin, utilization of: acetate, adipate, phenylacetate & L-tyrosine.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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