Streptococcus parvulus (Atopobium parvulum)
  1. J. G.Holt et al., 1994. Begey’s manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9-edition, Williams & Wilkins.
  2. Cato E.P.: Transfer of Peptostreptococcus parvulus (Weinberg, Nativelle, and Prévot 1937) Smith 1957 to the genus
    Streptococcus: Streptococcus parvulus (Weinberg, Nativelle, and Prévot 1937) comb. nov., nom. rev., emend. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.,
    1983, 33, 82-84.
  3. Olsen I., Johnson J.L., Moore L.V.H. & Moore W.E.C.: Lactobacillus uli sp. nov. and Lactobacillus rimae sp. nov. from the human
    gingival crevice and emended descriptions of Lactobacillus minutus and Streptococcus parvulus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1991, 41,
    261-266.
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Streptococcaceae, Genus Streptococcus, Streptococcus parvulus  
(Weinberg et al. 1937) Cato 1983. Moved to Atopobium parvulum Collins and Wallbanks 1993.
Old synonym:
Peptostreptococcus parvulus (Weinberg et al. 1937) Smith 1957; "Not Streptococcus parvulus"  Levinthal 1928;  
Streptococcus parvulus non liquefaciens  Repaci 1910)
Gram-positive, 0.3-0.4 μm, nonmotile, nonspore-forming cocci, occurring in short
chains or occasionally in pairs.
Nonhemolytic, small, 1.0 mm in diameter, circular, entire, transparent, grayish, slightly
peaked colonies. May become black.
Strictly anaerobic, optimal growth at 37.0 ºC. Can grow at 45 ºC but not at 10 ºC.
Growth inhibited in the presence of 20% bile or 6.5% NaCl. Culture media: Brain heart
infusion blood agar. Growth stimulated by the addition of 0.02% Tween 80.
Isolated from human respiratory tract & mouth (gingival crevices).
May be a cause of pulmonary gangrene, tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis, and dental and thoracic abscesses
Acid is produced from cellobiose, esculin, fructose, galactose, glucose, inulin, lactose,
maltose, mannose, salicin, sucrose & trehalose.
Acid is not produced from amygdalin, arabinose, glycerol, glycogen, inositol, mannitol,
melezitose, melibiose, pectin, raffinose, rhamnose, ribose, sorbitol & starch.
Esculin hydrolysis is positive.
Starch hydrolysis, hippurate hydrolysis, nitrates reduction, gelatin liquefaction, catalase, H
2S production & indole production are
negative.
Erythritol and xylose  are weakly fermented.
(c) Costin Stoica
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