Streptococcus ferus
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Streptococcaceae, Genus Streptococcus, Streptococcus ferus (ex
Coykendall 1977) Coykendall 1983. Member of the "Mutans group". No reaction with Lancefield antisera.
Gram-positive, 0.5 μm in diameter, lanceolate coccobacilli, nonmotile, grouped in pairs
or chains.
Nonhemolytic, 1 mm in diameter, raised, pitting and somewhat adherent colonies.
Grow at 37 ºC, better anaerobically. Growth is slightly enhanced in the presence of 5%
2 . No growth at 45 ºC or in 6.5% NaCl. The final pH in 1% glucose broth is 4.2 to
4.5. Grow on complex media: Trypticase soy agar with 5% sheep blood, Slanetz-
Bartley agar, Edwards agar. Cells precipitate in brain heart infusion broth and strains
are unable to grow in the presence of 6.5% NaCl or 20 μg/ml bacitracin. Growth
occurs in thepresence of 0.0013 g/l crystal violet plus 0.33 g/l thallous sulfate
(Edwards medium) and in the presence of 0.4 g/l sodium azide plus 0.1 g/l
tetrazolium chloride. Resistant to bile.
First isolated from sugarcane-consuming wild rats (oral cavity). Also isolated from pigs (nasal & oral samples).
Commensal of wild rats. Not reported in humans.
  1. Robert A. Whiley and Jeremy M. Hardie, 2009. Genus I. Streptococcus Rosenbach 1884, 22AL. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D.
    Jones, N.R. Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3:
    The Firmicutes, Springer, 655-711.
  2. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T. and Williams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth
    Edition, Williams & Wilkins, A Waverly Company, Baltimore, pp 527-558.
  3. Coykendall A.L.: Streptococcus sobrinus nom. rev. and Streptococcus ferus nom. rev.: habitat of these and other mutans
    streptococci. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1983, 33, 883-885.
  4. Margo Baele, Luc A. Devriese, Marc Vancanneyt, Mario Vaneechoutte, Cindy Snauwaert, Jean Swings & Freddy Haesebrouck:
    Emended description of Streptococcus ferus isolated from pigs and rats. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53 (2003), 143-146.
  5. A L Coykendall and M L Freedman. Colonization and cariogenicity of Streptococcus ferus in rats. Infect Immun. 1981 April; 32(1):
  6. Kazuko Takada, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Yutaka Sato, and Masatomo Hirasawa. Streptococcus dentapri sp. nov., isolated from the wild
    boar oral cavity. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol April 2010 60:820-823.
Positive results for leucine arylamidase, beta-D-glucosidase, Voges-Proskauer reaction, acid production from: N-acetylglucosamine,
esculin, amygdalin, cellobiose, D-fructose, galactose, D-glucose, glycogen, beta-gentiobiose, lactose, D-mannose, maltose,
maltotriose, sucrose, salicin, starch & trehalose.

Negative results for arginine hydrolysis, hippurate hydrolysis, beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, pyrrolidonyl arylamidase, acid
production from: adonitol, D- or L-arabinose, D- or L-arabitol, dulcitol, erythritol, D- or L-fucose, gluconate, glycerol, inositol, 2- or
5-ketogluconate, D-lyxose, melezitose, methyl beta-glycoside, methyl alpha-D-glycoside, rhamnose, ribose, l-sorbose, D-turanose,
xylitol,  D- or L-xylose.

Variable results for alkaline phosphatase, alpha-galactosidase, acid production from: D-tagatose, arbutin, inulin, mannitol, melibiose,
D-raffinose & sorbitol.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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