Streptococcus dysgalactiae
  Glycogen
(acid)
Sorbitol
(acid)
Lactose
(acid)
Mannitol
(acid)
Beta-galactosidase
Esculin hydrolysis
Subsp. dysgalactiae
-
d
+
d
-
d
Subsp. equisimilis
d
-
d
-
+
[+]
Legend: +  positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%, [+] positive 75-89%, [-] negative 75-89%, d positive 25-74% of strains
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Streptococcaceae, Genus Streptococcus,
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (ex Diernhofer 1932) Garvie et al. 1983.
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Vandamme et al. 1996.

Old synonyms: "Group II" Minett 1934,
Streptococcus pseudogalactiae Plastridge and
Hartsell 1937.

Subsp. dysgalactiae react with Lancefield group C antiserum, while subsp. equisimilis
may react with Lancefield group A, C, G, or L antisera.
Gram-positive cocci, nonmotile, grouped in short- to medium-length chains.
Colonies are non-hemolytic or alpha-hemolytic (subsp. dysgalatiae) and beta
hemolytic (
subsp. equisimilis). Growth at 37.0 ºC, no growth at 10 or 45 ºC. No growth
at pH 9.6, in 10% bile or in the presence of 6.5% NaCl. Require complex media:
sheep blood agar, Brain Heart Infusion agar or Brain Heart Infusion broth.
Isolated from milk, bovine vagina, and other clinical samples (human and animal).
Subsp. dysgalactiae can produce bovine mastitis and polyarthritis in lambs.
Subsp. equisimilis can produce septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, pneumonia,
skin and other  various infections in dogs, pigs, horses, cattle and humans also. May
be a normal inhabitant of the respiratory tract.
  1. Robert A. Whiley and Jeremy M. Hardie, 2009. Genus I. Streptococcus Rosenbach 1884, 22AL. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D.
    Jones, N.R. Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3:
    The Firmicutes, Springer, 655-711.
  2. Holt J.G., Krieg N.R., Sneath P.H.A., Staley J.T. and Williams S.T., 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Ninth
    Edition, Williams & Wilkins, A Waverly Company, Baltimore, pp 527-558.
  3. Garvie E.I., Farrow J.A.E. & Bramley A.J.: Streptococcus dysgalactiae (Diernhofer) nom. rev. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1983, 33, 404-405.
  4. Vandamme P., Pot B., Falsen E., Kersters K. & Devriese L.A.: Taxonomic study of Lancefield streptococcal groups C, G, and L
    (Streptococcus dysgalactiae) and proposal of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1996, 46, 774-
    781.
Positive results for arginine hydrolysis, beta-glucuronidase, leucine arylamidase, acid
production from: glucose, maltose, ribose, sucrose, starch & trehalose.
Hyaluronidase is usually produced. Litmus milk is usually reduced, acidified, and
clotted.

Negative results for catalase, hippurate hydrolysis, alpha-galactosidase,
pyrolidonylarylamidase, starch hydrolysis, Voges-Proskauer reaction, acid production
from: arabinose, raffinose & inulin.

Variable results for esculin hydrolysis, acid production from: lactose & glycerol. Some
strains hydrolyze salicin.
(c) Costin Stoica
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Differential characters between Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies:
Left picture: S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae
(alpha-hemolytic, Lancefield group C).
Right picture:
S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis
(beta-hemolytic, Lancefield group G)
S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, Gram-stained