Mycobacterium gilvum
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Actinobacteria, Class Actinobacteria, Order Actinomycetales, Suborder Corynebacterineae, Family Mycobacteriaceae, Genus
Mycobacterium gilvum Stanford and Gunthorpe 1971.
Pleomorphic acid-fast rods. Rough mutants form spreading pellicles that contain
microscopic cords.
Colonies are pale yellow, smooth, growing in less than 7 days on inspissated egg
media. Grows at 25-37 ºC, but not at 40 or 45 ºC. Grows on MacConkey agar (without
crystal violet).
Isolated from sputum and pleural fluid.
Susceptible to hydroxylamine (500 μg/ml), cycloserine, viomycin, kanamycin, and capreomycin. Resistant to thiophen-2-carboxylic
acid hydrazide (TCH), isoniazid, sodium aminosalicylate, streptomycin, and rifampicin.
Considered to be non-pathogenic.
  1. John G. Magee and Alan C. Ward 2012. Family III. Mycobacteriaceae Chester 1897, 63AL in Bergey’s Manual of Systematic
    Bacteriology, Volume Five The Actinobacteria, Part A, Michael Goodfellow & al. (editors), 312-375.
  2. Julian E, Roldan M, Sanchez-Chardi A, Astola O, Agusti G, Luquin M. Microscopic cords, a virulence-related characteristic of
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are also present in nonpathogenic mycobacteria. J Bacteriol. 2010;192(7):1751–1760. doi:10.1128
  3. Schroder KH, Naumann L, Kroppenstedt RM, Reischl U. Mycobacterium hassiacum sp. nov., a new rapidly growing thermophilic
    mycobacterium. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1997; 47:86-91.
  4. Stanford JL, Gunthorpe WJ. A study of some fast-growing scotochromogenic mycobacteria including species descriptions of
    Mycobacterium gilvum (new species) and Mycobacterium duvalii (new species). Br J Exp Pathol 1971; 52:627-637.
  5. Tsukamura M, Mizuno S, Tsukamura S. Numerical analysis of rapidly growing, scotochromogenic mycobacteria, including
    Mycobacterium obuense sp. nov., nom. rev., Mycobacterium rhodesiae sp. nov., nom. rev., Mycobacterium aichiense sp. nov.,
    nom. rev., Mycobacterium chubuense sp. nov., nom. rev., and Mycobacterium tokaiense sp. nov., nom. rev. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.
    1981; 31:263-275.
  6. Casal M, Calero JR. Mycobacterium gadium sp. nov. a new species of rapid-growing scotochromogenic mycobacteria. Tubercle
    1974; 55:299-308.
  7. Balcazar JL, Planas M, Pintado J. Mycobacterium hippocampi sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic species isolated from
    a seahorse with tail rot. Curr Microbiol 2014; 69:329-333.
  8. Shojaei H, Daley C, Gitti Z, Hashemi A, Heidarieh P, Moore ER, Naser AD, Russo C, van Ingen J, Tortoli E. Mycobacterium
    iranicum sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic species isolated from clinical specimens on three different continents. Int
    J Syst Evol Microbiol 2013; 63:1383-1389.
Positive results for arylsulfatase (3 and 7 days), catalase, thermostable catalase (68 ºC), iron uptake, nitrate reduction,
nicotinamidase, pyrazinamidase, Tween 80 hydrolysis, urease, acid production from glucose, inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, and
Can utilize citrate and succinate as sole carbon source.

Negative results for alpha-esterase, semiquantitative catalase test, beta-galactosidase (type strain reported positive in Balcazar's
study), niacin accumulation, acid production from arabinose, L-rhamnose, sucrose, and D-xylose.

Variable results for acid phosphatase and beta-esterase, utilization of malate and fumarate.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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