|Mycobacterium bovis on Lowenstein-Jensen medium
|Mycobacterium bovis in Sauton medium
Phylum Actinobacteria, Class Actinobacteria, Order Actinomycetales, Suborder Corynebacterineae, Family Mycobacteriaceae, Genus
Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium bovis Karlson and Lessel 1970.
Old synonyms: "Mycobacterium tuberculosis typus bovinus" Lehmann and Neumann 1907, "Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis"
Bergey et al. 1934.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex comprises Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. africanum, M. canettii, M. bovis, M. microti, M. orygis,
M. caprae, M. pinnipedii, M. suricattae, M. mungi, M. dassie, and M. oryx.
According to Riojas et al. (2018), “phylogenomic analysis of the species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex demonstrates
that M. africanum, M. bovis, M. caprae, M. microti and M. pinnipedii are later heterotypic synonyms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis”.
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is a live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain used to prevent tuberculosis and other mycobacterial
infections. The vaccine was developed by Calmette and Gurin and was first administered to human beings in 1921. BCG is the only
vaccine against tuberculosis.
Acid-alcohol-fast, short to moderately long rods. Gram-positive. Nonmotile.
Colonies on egg media are small, rounded, white, with irregular edges and a
granular surface after incubation at 37 ºC for 21 days. Colonies on transparent oleic
acid-albumin agar are thin, flat, generally corded, and not easily emulsified in the
absence of a detergent. On primary isolation, growth is very poor on
glycerol-containing media, although repeated subculture permits adaptation to growth
on such media. Time of growth varies from 25 to 90 days. Growth is improved by the
addition of pyruvate to media. Freshly isolated cultures are microaerophilic; inocula
dispersed into liquid, semisolid, or solid agar media grow within the medium but not
on the surface, thereby distinguishing M. bovis from M. tuberculosis which is highly
aerobic. No growth in 5% NaCl. No growth on MacConkey agar.
BCG strain grows in 14-21 days, and produce white colonies with irregular edges.
Isolated from tubercles in cattle and from other animals. Sensitive to
thiophene-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide (T2H) (1 mg/l)., hydroxylamine (500 mg/l),
ethambutol (2 mg/l) and isoniazid (1 mg/l).
Causes tuberculosis in cattle and other ruminants, man and other primates, swine,
carnivores including cats and dogs, swine, parrots and possibly other birds.
Generally is more pathogenic for animals than Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Experimental infection: highly pathogenic for calves, guinea pigs, and rabbits,
moderately pathogenic for hamsters and mice, low pathogenic for cats, dogs, horses,
and rats and not pathogenic for most fowl.
- John G. Magee and Alan C. Ward 2012. Family III. Mycobacteriaceae Chester 1897, 63AL in Bergey’s Manual of Systematic
Bacteriology, Volume Five The Actinobacteria, Part A, Michael Goodfellow & al. (editors), 312-375.
- Loredana Gabriela Popa, Mircea Ioan Popa 2009. Identificarea bacililor acido-rezistenti in: Tratat de microbiologie clinica, Dumitru
Buiuc, Marian Negut, ed. a III-a, Editura Medicala, 881-890, ISBN (13) 978-973-39-0593-6.
- Sinha P, Gupta A, Prakash P, Anupurba S, Tripathi R, Srivastava GN. Differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from
non-tubercular mycobacteria by nested multiplex PCR targeting IS6110, MTP40 and 32kD alpha antigen encoding gene
fragments. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:123. Published 2016 Mar 12. doi:10.1186/s12879-016-1450-1.
- Marco A. Riojas, Katya J. McGough, Cristin J. Rider-Riojas, Nalin Rastogi and Manzour Hernando Hazbón. Phylogenomic analysis
of the species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex demonstrates that Mycobacterium africanum, Mycobacterium bovis,
Mycobacterium caprae, Mycobacterium microti and Mycobacterium pinnipedii are later heterotypic synonyms of Mycobacterium
tuberculosis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2018 Jan;68(1):324-332. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.002507.
- Zhang ZY, Sun ZQ, Wang ZL, Hu HR, Wen ZL, Song YZ, Zhao JW, Wang HH, Guo XK, Zhang SL. Identification and pathogenicity
analysis of a novel non-tuberculous mycobacterium clinical isolate with nine-antibiotic resistance. Clin Microbiol Infect 2013; 19:
- Rastogi N, Legrand E, Sola C. The mycobacteria: an introduction to nomenclature and pathogenesis. Rev Sci Tech. 2001;20(1):21‐
- Tsukamura M. Numerical identification of slowly growing mycobacteria. Microbiol Immunol. 1985;29(11):1039‐1050. doi:10.1111/j.
- Tsukamura M. Adansonian classification of mycobacteria. J Gen Microbiol 1966; 45:253-273.
Positive results for acid phosphatase, alpha-esterase, tellurite reduction and urease.
Negative results for catalase (inactivated at 68 ºC), semiquantitative catalase test, iron
absorption (7 days), niacin production, nitrate reduction, nicotinamidase,
pyrazinamidase, Tween 80 hydrolysis, succinate an malate utilization.
No utilization as sole carbon source of acetate, citrate, succinate, malate, pyruvate,
benzoate, fumarate, glucose, fructose, sucrose ethanol, and propanol.
(c) Costin Stoica