Phylum Actinobacteria, Class Actinobacteria, Order Actinomycetales, Suborder Corynebacterineae, Family Mycobacteriaceae, Genus
Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium alvei Ausina et al. 1992.
Member of the Mycobacterium fortuitum complex.
Strongly acid-fast, coccoid to short rods 1-3 x 0.5-7 μm. Gram-positive. Forms clumps
of rods but not cords. Spores, capsules, and true branching are not observed.
Colonies on Lowenstein-Jensen medium and on Middlebrook 7H10 agar are
eugonic, rough, and nonpigmented in the dark and also after exposure to light.
Growth occurs within 5 days at 30 ºC (optimum). At 37 ºC, the organisms grow more
slowly (growth appears within 10 to 15 days. Can grow at 25 ºC, but not at 45 or 52 ºC.
No growth on MacConkey agar (without crystal violet) or on media supplemented with
5% NaCl. Grows on nutrient agar.
Isolated from water, soil and human sputum.
Susceptible to ethambutol (2 μg/ml), kanamycin (20 μg/ml), and capreomycin (40 μg/ml). Resistant to hydroxylamine (500 μg/ml),
isoniazid (1 μg/ml), rifampin (40 μg/ml), thiacetazone (10 μg/ml), D-cycloserine (30 μg/ml), and streptomycin (4 μg/ml).
- John G. Magee and Alan C. Ward 2012. Family III. Mycobacteriaceae Chester 1897, 63AL in Bergey’s Manual of Systematic
Bacteriology, Volume Five The Actinobacteria, Part A, Michael Goodfellow & al. (editors), 312-375.
- Ausina V, Luquin M, Garcia Barcelo M, Laneelle MA, Levy-Frebault V, Belda F, Prats G. Mycobacterium alvei sp. nov. Int J Syst
Bacteriol 1992; 42:529-535.
- Lamy B, Marchandin H, Hamitouche K, Laurent F. Mycobacterium setense sp. nov., a Mycobacterium fortuitum-group organism
isolated from a patient with soft tissue infection and osteitis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2008; 58:486-490.
Positive results for arylsulfatase (3 days), catalase (22°C), thermostable catalase (68°C), beta-gucosidase (3 h), beta-galactosidase
(18 h), nitrate reductase (2 h), penicillinase (5 h), trehalase (5 h), Tween hydrolysis (10 days), urease (18 h), acid production from
glucose and fructose.
Can utilize as sole carbon source glucose and fructose.
Negative results for iron uptake, niacin production, acid production from dulcitol, inositol, mannitol, rhamnose, and xylose.
No utilization as sole carbon source of citrate, mannitol, and myo-inositol.
(c) Costin Stoica