Lactobacillus vaccinostercus
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Lactobacillaceae, Genus Lactobacillus, [Group C lactobacilli
(obligately heterofermentative),  
Lactobacillus reuteri phylogenetic group], Lactobacillus vaccinostercus Kozaki and Okada 1983
emend. Dellaglio, Vancanneyt, Endo, Vandamme, Felis, Castioni, Fujimoto, Watanabe and Okada 2006.

Synonyms: According to Dellaglio et al. 2006,
Lactobacillus durianis Leisner et al. 2002 is a later heterotypic synonym of  
Lactobacillus vaccinostercus Kozaki and Okada 1983.
Gram-positive rods (0.9-1.0 x 1.5-2.5 µm) with rounded ends, that occur in pairs,
rarely in single or in short chains (depending on the medium for growth).
Nonspore-forming. Nonmotile.
Colonies on xylose-YP agar for 48 h at 30 ºC are 2 mm in diameter; CaCO3 is clearly
dissolved on the plate. The liquid culture is highly turbid and the cells precipitate
gradually in xylose-YP broth and glucose-YP broth. Optimum growth temperature is
30 ºC. Can grow at 20-40 ºC; not at 45 ºC. Variable growth at 15 ºC. Range of pH
4.5-7.5. Growth factor requirements: thiamine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, niacin and
biotin are essential.
Isolated from cow dung.
Undetermined.
  1. Hammes W.P. and Hertel C., 2009. Genus I. Lactobacillus  Beijerinck 1901. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 465-511.
  2. Okada S., Suzuki Y. and Kozaki M., 1979. A new heterofermentative Lactobacillus species with meso-diaminopimelic acid in
    peptidoglycan, Lactobacillus vaccinostercus Kozaki and Okada sp. nov. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol., 25, 215-221.
  3. Dellaglio F., Vancanneyt M., Endo A., Vandamme P., Felis G.E., Castioni A., Fujimoto J., Watanabe K. and Okada S., 2006.
    Lactobacillus durianis Leisner et al. 2002 is a later heterotypic synonym of Lactobacillus vaccinostercus Kozaki and Okada 1983.
    IJSEM 56, 1721-1724.
Obligately heterofermentative (hexoses are fermented to lactic acid, acetic acid (ethanol), and CO2 via the phosphogluconate pathway;
pentoses are  fermented to lactic acid and acetic acid by the related pentose phosphate pathaway).

Positive results for fermentation of: arabinose, D-glucose (acid is produced in more than 4 days; gas is produced under anaerobic
conditions), gluconate (acid and gas are produced), maltose, ribose & xylose.

Negative results for arginine hydrolysis (NH
3 from arginine), catalase, gelatin liquefiaction, nitrate reduction, fermentation of:
cellobiose, esculin, glycerol, inulin, lactose, mannitol, mannose, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, salicin, sorbitol, starch,
sucrose, trehalose & xylan. Litmus milk is not changed.

Variable and weak results for fructose & galactose fermentation.
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