Lactobacillus plantarum
Lactobacillus plantarum, Gram staining
Lactobacillus plantarum colonies on MRS Agar
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Lactobacillaceae, Genus Lactobacillus [Group B lactobacilli
(facultatively heterofermentative), unique phylogenetic-group],
Lactobacillus  plantarum  (Orla-Jensen 1919) Bergey et al. 1923 .

L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis has been elevated to the species level as L.argentoratensis sp. nov. Zheng et al. 2020.

The differentiation between the related species
Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum and
Lactobacillus argentoratensis
is problematic when using physiological and biochemical characteristics. The use of genotypic
methods provides clear identification results (Bringel et al., 2005).

Historical synonyms:
Streptobacterium plantarum Orla-Jensen 1919, Lactobacterium plantarum (Orla-Jensen 1919) Krasilnikov
1949.According to Kostinek et al. 2005,
Lactobacillus plantarum (Orla-Jensen 1919) Bergey et al. 1923 is an earlier heterotypic
synonym of  
Lactobacillus arizonensis Swezey et al. 2000.
Gram-positive rods with rounded ends, straight (0.9-1.2 x 1-2 μm) occurring singly, in
pairs or in short chains. Nonmotile. Nonspore-forming.
Facultatively anaerobic. Anaerobically, surface colony are 3 mm wide, raised, smooth,
white and occasionally light or dark yellow. Heavy turbidity in broth. Optimum growth
temperature is 30-35 ºC. Can grow at 15 but not at 45 ºC. Growth factors requirement:
calcium pantothenate and niacin required, riboflavin generally not required.
L. plantarum: isolated from dairy products and environments, silage, sauerkraut,
pickled vegetables, sourdough, cow dung, and the human mouth, intestinal tract and
stools, and from sewage; from intestinal tract of pig, cattle and horse.
L. argentoratensis: isolated from starchy food and fermenting food of plant origin.
Undetermined.
  1. Hammes W.P. and Hertel C., 2009. Genus I. Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 465-511.
  2. Rogosa M., 1974. Genus I. Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901. In: (Eds.) Buchanan R.E. and Gibbons N.E., Bergey’s Manual of
    Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition , The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 576-593.
  3. Bringel F., Castioni A., Olukoya D.K., Felis G.E., Torriani S. and Dellaglio F., 2005. Lactobacillus  plantarum subsp. argentoratensis
    subsp. nov., isolated from vegetable matrices. IJSEM 55, 1629-1634.
  4. Li TT, Liu DD, Fu ML and Gu CT, 2020. Proposal of Lactobacillus kosoi Chiou et al. 2018 as a later heterotypic synonym of
    Lactobacillus micheneri McFrederick et al. 2018, elevation of Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis to the species level
    as Lactobacillus argentoratensis sp. nov., and Lactobacillus zhaodongensis sp. nov., isolated from traditional Chinese pickle and
    the intestinal tract of a honey bee (Apis mellifera). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 70, 3123-3133.
Facultatively heterofermentative.

Positive results for milk acidification, fermentation of: amygdalin, cellobiose, esculin,
fructose, galactose, beta-gentiobiose, N-acetylglucoseamine, glucose (acid without
gas production), gluconate (with gas), lactose, maltose, mannitol, mannose,
melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, ribose, salicin, sorbitol, sucrose, and trehalose.

Negative results for arginine hydrolysis, catalase (may produce a pseudocatalase),
fermentation of: adonitol, D-arabinose, L-arabitol, erythritol, fucose, inositol, inulin,
2-ketogluconate, 5-ketogluconate, rhamnose, sorbose, and xylose.

Variable results for nitrate reduction and  fermentation of L-arabinose.
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Nitrate
reduction
L-Arabinose
fermentation
Gluconate
fermentation
Glycerol
fermentation
Melezitose
fermentation
Rhamnose
fermentation
Starch
fermentation
Xylose
fermentation
L. plantarum
d
d
+
-
+
-
[-]
-
L. argentoratensis
d
d
-
-
-
-
[-]
-
L. paraplantarum
nd
d
+
-
+
d
-
-
L. pentosus
nd
+
+
+
d
d
-
d
Differential characters of L. plantarum subsp plantarum, L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis, L. paraplantarum and L. pentosus.
Legend: +  positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%, [+] positive 75-89%, [-] negative 75-89%,
d positive 25-74% of strains, nd not determined