Lactobacillus paraplantarum
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Lactobacillaceae, Genus Lactobacillus, [Group B lactobacilli
(facultatively heterofermentative), unique phylogenetic-group],
Lactobacillus paraplantarum  Curk, Hubert and Bringel 1996.

The differentiation between the related species
Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp.
plantarum
and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis is problematic when using physiological and biochemical
characteristics. The use of genotypic methods provides clear identification results (Bringel et al., 2005).
Rods occurring singly, in pairs or in short chains. Nonmotile.
Colonies grown on MRS agar are round, smooth, dome shaped, and creamy. Grow at
15 and 37 ºC. No growth at 45 ºC. Can grow in NaCl 0-8%. Can grow at pH 5-7, but
not at pH 4.
Isolated from beer and human feces in France.
Undetermined.
  1. Hammes W.P. and Hertel C., 2009. Genus I. Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 465-511.
  2. Curk M.C., Hubert J.C. and Bringel F., 1996. Lactobacillus paraplantarum sp. nov., a new species related to Lactobacillus
    plantarum. IJSB Vol. 46, No. 2, 595-598.
  3. Bringel F., Castioni A., Olukoya D.K., Felis G.E., Torriani S. and Dellaglio F., 2005. Lactobacillus  plantarum subsp. argentoratensis
    subsp. nov., isolated from vegetable matrices. IJSEM 55, 1629-1634.
Facultatively heterofermentative.

Positive results for esculin hydrolysis, fermentation of: amygdalin, arbutin, cellobiose, esculin, fructose, galactose, beta-gentiobiose,
N-acetylglucosamine, glucose (acid without gas production), gluconate (with gas production), lactose, maltose, mannitol, mannose,
melezitose , melibiose, ribose, salicin, sucrose and trehalose.

Negative results for arginine hydrolysis, fermentation of: adonitol, D-arabinose, L-arabitol, dulcitol, erythritol, fucose, glycerol,
glycogen, inositol, inulin, 2-ketogluconate, 5-ketogluconate, lyxose, sorbose, starch, tagatose, xylose and xylitol.

Variable results for fermentation of: L-arabinose, D-arabitol, raffinose, rhamnose, sorbitol & turanose.
(c) Costin Stoica
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Nitrate
reduction
L-Arabinose
fermentation
Gluconate
fermentation
Glycerol
fermentation
Melezitose
fermentation
Rhamnose
fermentation
Starch
fermentation
Xylose
fermentation
L. plantarum subsp.
plantarum
d
d
[-]
-
d
-
[-]
-
L. plantarum subsp.
argentoratensis
d
d
[-]
-
d
-
[-]
-
L. paraplantarum
nd
d
+
-
+
d
-
-
L. pentosus
nd
+
+
+
d
d
-
d
Differential characters of L. plantarum subsp plantarum, L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis, L. paraplantarum & L. pentosus.
Legend: +  positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%, [+] positive 75-89%, [-] negative 75-89%, d positive 25-74% of strains, nd not determined