Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei   
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
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Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Lactobacillaceae, Genus Lactobacillus [Group B lactobacilli
(facultatively heterofermentative), unique phylogenetic-group],
Lactobacillus paracasei Collins, Phillips and Zanoni 1989.

Historical synonyms:   
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei Collins et al. 1989, encompasses the type strain of Lactobacillus
casei subsp. alactosus
Mills and Lessel 1973  and the type strain of Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum Abo-Elnaga and
Kandler 1965.
Gram-positive rods (0.8–1.0 x 2.0–4.0 μm) often with square ends, occurring singly or
in chains. Nonmotile.
Can grow at 10-40 ºC. Variable growth at 5 and 45 ºC.
Isolated from dairy products, sewage, silage, humans and clinical sources, and from intestines of cattle.
Undetermined.
  1. Hammes W.P. and Hertel C., 2009. Genus I. Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 465-511.
  2. Collins M.D., Phillips B.A., and Zanoni P., 1989. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Homology Studies of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus
    paracasei sp. nov., subsp. paracasei and subsp. tolerans, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus sp. nov., comb. nov. IJSB vol. 39, no 2,
    105-108.
Facultatively heterofermentative (hexoses are fermented almost exclusively to lactic
acid by the Embden-Meyerhof pathway or, at least by some species, to lactic acid,
acetic acid, ethanol & formic acid under glucose limitations; pentoses are fermented
to lactic acid and acetic acid via an inducible phosphoketolase).

Positive results for esculin hydrolysis, fermentation of: amygdalin, arbutin, cellobiose, esculin, fructose, galactose, beta-gentibiose,
glucose (acid), gluconate, maltose, mannitol, mannose, melezitose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, ribose, salicin, sucrose, tagatose,
trehalose & turanose.

Negative results for arginine hydrolysis, urease, fermentation of: arabinose, arabitol, erythritol, fucose, glycerol, 2-ketogluconate,
5-ketogluconate, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, starch, xylitol & xylose.

Variable fermentation of adonitol, dulcitol, inositol, inulin, lactose, sorbitol & sorbose.
(c) Costin Stoica
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