1. Li TT, Liu DD, Fu ML and Gu CT, 2020. Proposal of Lactobacillus kosoi Chiou et al. 2018 as a later heterotypic synonym of
    Lactobacillus micheneri McFrederick et al. 2018, elevation of Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis to the species level
    as Lactobacillus argentoratensis sp. nov., and Lactobacillus zhaodongensis sp. nov., isolated from traditional Chinese pickle and
    the intestinal tract of a honey bee (Apis mellifera). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 70, 3123-3133.
  2. Zheng J, Wittouck S, Salvetti E, Franz MAP et al., 2020. A taxonomic note on the genus Lactobacillus: Description of 23 novel
    genera, emended description of the genus Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901, and union of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae.
    Int J Syst Microbiol. 70, 2782-2858.
  3. McFrederick QS, Vuong HQ and Rothman JA, 2018. Lactobacillus micheneri sp. nov., Lactobacillus timberlakei sp. nov. and
    Lactobacillus quenuiae sp. nov., lactic acid bacteria isolated from wild bees and flowers. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 68, 1879-1884.
  4. Chiou TY, Suda W, Oshima K, Hattori M, Matsuzaki C, Yamamoto K, Takahashi T, 2018. Lactobacillus kosoi sp. nov., a fructophilic
    species isolated from koso, a Japanese sugar-vegetable fermented beverage. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 111, 1149-1156.
Lactobacillus micheneri / L. kosoi
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Lactobacillaceae, Genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus micheneri  
(McFrederick et al. 2018) emended Li, Liu, Fu and Gu 2020.

Historical synonyms:
Lactobacillus micheneri McFrederick et al. 2018; Lactobacillus kosoi Chiou et al. 2018; Apilactobacillus
(McFrederick et al. 2018) Zheng et al. 2020.

Lactobacillus kosoi Chiou et al. 2018 is a later heterotypic synonym of Lactobacillus micheneri McFrederick et al. 2018 (Li, Liu, Fu and
Gu 2020).
Gram-positive rods, 0.6-0.8 / 0.9-2.2 µm, occurring singly or in pairs.
Non-spore-forming. Non-motile.
Colonies are beige / white, convex, smooth with entire margins, 1-1.5 mm in diameter
after 3 days at 30 ºC on mMRS agar supplemented with
5-10% D-fructose. Facultative
anaerobe. Grows at 15-39 ºC (optimally at 27-35 ºC). Grows at pH 4.0-7.0.
L. micheneri was isolated from the gut of a sweat bee (Halictus ligatus, Halictidae family), USA and flowers. Resistant to ampicillin,
kanamycin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol.

L. kosoi was isolated from koso, a Japanese sugar-vegetable fermented beverage. Fructophilic.
Description is based mostly on API 50 CHL and API ZYM (bioMerieux) results / 48h.

Positive results for hippurate hydrolysis, acid production from D-fructose and sucrose (
L. kosoi is negative for sucrose fermentation.
L. kosoi strain produce lactic acid, acetic acid and gas from D-fructose, but testing in API 50CHL after 48-h incubation showed no acid

Negative results for arginine deamination, catalase, esculin hydrolysis, acid production from adonitol, amygdalin, arbutin, D- and L-
arabinose, D- and L-arabitol, cellobiose, dulcitol, erythritol, esculin, D- and L-fucose, galactose, gentiobiose, gluconate, 2- and 5-
ketogluconate, glycerol, glycogen, inositol, inulin, D-lyxose, lactose, maltose, mannitol, mannose, melibiose, melezitose, N-
acetylglucosamine, methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside, methyl alpha-D-xyloside, methylalpha-D-mannopyranoside, raffinose,
rhamnose, ribose, salicin, L-sorbose, sorbitol, starch, D-tagatose, trehalose, turanose,methyl beta-D-xylopyranoside, xylitol, D- and L-

Variable results for glucose
fermentation without gas production (L. kosoi strain is negative).
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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