Lactobacillus kunkeei
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Lactobacillaceae, Genus Lactobacillus, [Group C lactobacilli
(obligately homofermentative), unique phylogenetic group],
Lactobacillus  kunkeei  Edwards, Haag, Collins, Hutson and Huang 1998
emend. Endo et al. 2012.
Gram-positive rods, 0.5 x 1.0-1.5 µm, occuring singly or in pairs and in chains.
Nonmotile.
Colonies on MRS agar are white, smooth, opaque, concave, 1-2 mm in diameter after
3 days at 25 ºC under aerobic conditions and 0.1-0.2 mm under anaerobic conditions
after 2 days at 30 ºC Facultatively anaerobic. Can grow at 15 and 37 ºC, but not at 5 or
45 ºC. Range of pH 3.7-8.0. Can grow in 5% NaCl (weak).
Isolated from partially fermented grape juice, wine, flowers and honey (fructose-rich niches).
Not pathogenic.
  1. Hammes W.P. and Hertel C., 2009. Genus I. Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 465-511.
  2. Edwards C.G., Haag K.M., Collins M.D., Hutson R.A. and Huang Y.C., 1998. Lactobacillus kunkeei sp.  nov. : a spoilage organism
    associated with grape juice fermentations. J. Appl. Microbiol. 84, 698-702.
  3. Endo A., Irisawa T., Futagawa-Endo Y., Takano K., du Toit M., Okada S. and Dicks L.M., 2012. Characterization and emended
    description of Lactobacillus kunkeei as a fructophilic lactic acid bacterium. IJSEM 62, 500-504.
  4. Olofsson T.C., Alsterfjord M., Nilson B., Butler E. and Vasquez A., 2014. Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp.
    nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus
    helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis
    mellifera. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64, 3109-3119
Obligately heterofermentative (hexoses are fermented to lactic acid, acetic acid (ethanol), and CO2 via the phosphogluconate pathway;
pentoses are  fermented to lactic acid and acetic acid by the related pentose phosphate pathaway). Obligately fructophilic lactic acid
bacteria.

Positive results for acid and alkaline phosphatase, leucine arylamidase , valine arylamidase, fermentation of: fructose, glucose (acid
and gas production), raffinose (weak) and sucrose. Citrate and malate are utilized in the presence of glucose.

Negative results for arginine hydrolysis (NH
3 from arginine), catalase, cystine arylamidase, esterase (C4), esterase lipase (C8),
esculin hydrolysis, beta-galactosidase, alpha- and beta-glucosidase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, nitrate reduction, fermentation
of: N-acetylglucosamine, adonitol, amygdalin, arbutin, D- and L-arabinose, D- and L-arabitol, cellobiose, dulcitol, erythritol, esculin,
fucose, beta-gentiobiose, gluconate, glycerol, glycogen, inositol inulin, 2- & 5-ketogluconate, lactose, D-lyxose, maltose, mannose,
melezitose, rhamnose, ribose, salicin, sorbitol, sorbose, starch, tagatose, turanose,  xylitol and xylose.

Variable results for galactose, mannitol (weak), melibiose and trehalose.
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