Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Lactobacillaceae, Genus Lactobacillus, [Group A lactobacilli
(obligately homofermentative), Lactobacillus delbrueckii phylogenetic-group],  
- Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. kefiranofaciens (Fujisawa, Adachi, Toba, Arihara and Mitsuoka 1988) Vancanneyt, Mengaud,
Cleenwerck, Vanhonacker, Hoste, Dawyndt, Degivry, Ringuet, Janssens and Swings 2004,
- Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. kefirgranum (Takizawa, Kojima, Tamura, Fujinaga, Benno and Nakase 1994) Vancanneyt,
Mengaud, Cleenwerck, Vanhonacker, Hoste, Dawyndt, Degivry, Ringuet, Janssens and Swings 2004.

Historical synonyms:
Lactobacillus kefirgranum Takizawa, Kojima, Tamura, Fujinaga, Benno and Nakase 1994.
Gram-positive long rods (0.5–1.2 x 3.0–20.0 μm) occurring singly, in pairs or in short chains. Nonmotile. Nonspore-forming.
Subsp. kefiranofaciens: cells are capsulated.
Facultatively anaerobic. Can grow at 25-30 ºC, but not at 45 ºC. Colony morphology is
subspecies-dependent.
Subsp. kefiranofaciens: on modified KPL agar (pH 5.5) at 30 ºC after 10 days,
colonies are circular or irregular, 0.5-3.0 mm in diameter, convex, transparent to
translucent, white, smooth to rough, and ropy. On MLR medium under anaerobic
conditions after 7-14 days incubation at 25 or 30 ºC, colonies are transparent, glossy,
convex, and extremely slimy. Large amounts of polysaccharides are produced.
Subsp. kefirgranum: on R-CW agar at 30 ºC for 5 days, colonies are 0.5-3.0 mm in
diameter, circular to irregular, convex, opaque, white, and smooth to rough. On MLR
medium under anaerobic conditions after 7-14 days incubation at 25 or 30 ºC,
colonies are white, dry, compact, dull, and bulging. Flocculus or powdery sediment is
formed in broth. Weak growth occurs at 15 ºC.
Habitat is kefir grains.
Undetermined.
  1. Hammes W.P. and Hertel C., 2009. Genus I. Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Springer, 465-511.
  2. Fujisawa T., Adachi S., Toba T., Arihara K., and Mitsuoka T., 1988. Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens sp. nov. isolated from kefir grains.
    IJSB Vol. 38, No. 1, 12-14.
  3. Vancanneyt M., Mengaud J., Cleenwerck I., Vanhonacker K., Hoste B., Dawyndt P., Degivry M.C., Ringuet D., Janssens D. and
    Swings J., 2004. Reclassification of Lactobacillus kefirgranum Takizawa et al. 1994 as Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp.
    kefirgranum subsp. nov. and emended description of L. kefiranofaciens Fujisawa et al. 1988. IJSEM 54, 551-556.
Obligately homofermentative (hexoses are fermented almost exclusively to lactic acid by the Embden-Meyerhof pathway; pentoses or
gluconate are not fermented).

Positive results for fermentation of: fructose, galactose, glucose (acid without gas production) and lactose. Milk is curdled.

Negative results for catalase, arginine hydrolysis (deamination), starch hydrolysis, fermentation of: adonitol, arabinose, arabitol,
esculin, dulcitol, erythritol, fucose, gluconate, 2-ketogluconate, 5-ketogluconate, glycerol, glycogen, inositol, lyxose, mannitol,
melezitose, rhamnose, ribose, sorbitol, sorbose, starch, tagatose, xylose and xylitol.

Variable results for N-acetylglucosamine and raffinose fermentation.
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Differential characters of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subspecies:
Legend: +  positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%, [+] positive 75-89%, [-] negative 75-89%, d positive 25-74% of strains
 
Esculin
hydrolysis
Amygdalin
fermentation
Arbutin
fermentation
Cellobiose
fermentation
Beta-gentibiose
fermentation
Inulin
fermentation
subsp. kefiranofaciens
-
-
-
-
-
-
subsp. kefirgranum
+
d
d
d
d
d
Maltose
fermentation
Mannose
fermentation
Melibiose
fermentation
Salicin
fermentation
Sucrose
fermentation
Trehalose
fermentation
Turanose
fermentation
d
-
d
-
+
-
-
+
+
+
d
d
d
d