L.casei gas production by gluconate fermentation
(bottom of the tube No 47)
Lactobacillus casei Gram-stained cells
L. casei colonies on MRS agar after 48h at 37 ºC
Historical synonyms:  Streptobacterium casei Orla-Jensen 1919, Bacillus alpha von
Freudenreich
1890, Bacillus alpha von Freudenreich 1891, Bacillus casei alpha von
Freudenreich
and Thöni 1904, Caseobacterium vulgare Orla-Jensen 1916,
Bacterium casei alpha Orla-Jensen 1916, Lactobacillus casei Bergey et al. 1923,
Lactobacterium casei (Orla-Jensen 1916) Krasil'nikov 1949.
Lactobacillus casei
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Lactobacillaceae, Genus Lactobacillus [Group B lactobacilli
(facultatively heterofermentative), unique phylogenetic-group],
Lactobacillus casei  (Orla-Jensen 1916) Hansen and Lessel 1971.
Gram-positive, short or long rods (0.7-1.1 x 2.0-4.0 μm) often with square ends and
tending to form chains. Nonmotile. Nonspore-forming.
Plate deep colonies are smooth, lens or diamond-shaped, white to very light yellow.
Grows in broth even heavy turbidity. Optimum growth temperature 10-40 ºC. Variable
growth at 45 ºC.
Growth factor requirements: riboflavin, folic acid, calcium pantothenate, and niacin are
essential; pyridoxal or pyridoxamine is essential or stimulatory.
Isolated from milk, cheese, and intestinal tract (human). Lactobacillus casei has been
identified as causatives of ropy appearance in cooked marinades.
Undetermined.
  1. Hammes W.P. and Hertel C., 2009. Genus I. Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901. In:
    (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H.
    Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3:
    The Firmicutes, Springer, 465-511.
  2. Rogosa M., 1974. Genus I. Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901. In: (Eds.) Buchanan R.
    E. and Gibbons N.E., Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth
    Edition , The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 576-593.
  3. Hansen P.A. and Lessel E.F., 1971. Lactobacillus casei (Orla-Jensen) comb.
    nov. IJSB vol. 21, No.1, 69-71.
Facultatively heterofermentative (hexoses are fermented almost exclusively to lactic
acid by the Embden-Meyerhof pathway or, at least by some species, to lactic acid,
acetic acid, ethanol, and formic acid under glucose limitations; pentoses are
fermented to lactic acid and acetic acid via an inducible phosphoketolase).

Positive results for fermentation of: amygdalin, cellobiose, esculin, fructose,
galactose, glucose (without gas production), gluconate (with gas production),
lactose, mannitol, mannose, melezitose, ribose, salicin, sorbitol, sucrose, and
trehalose.

Negative results for arginine hydrolysis, fermentation of: arabinose, inulin,
melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, starch, and xylose.

Variable results for maltose fermentation.

Catalase- and oxidase-negative (admin note).
(c) Costin Stoica
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