Lactobacillus brevis
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Lactobacillaceae, Genus Lactobacillus [Group C lactobacilli
(obligately heterofermentative),  unique phylogenetic group],
Lactobacillus brevis (Orla-Jensen 1919) Bergey, Breed, Hammer,
Huntoon, Murray and Harrison 1934.

Historical synonyms:   
Bacillus Y von Freudenreich 1891, Bacillus casei Y  von Freudenreich and Thöni 1904, Betabacterium breve
Orla-Jensen 1919,
Lactobacterium breve  (Orla-Jensen 1919) Krasil'nikov 1949, Bacillus lindneri Henneberg 1901, Bacillus
fasciformis
Schönfeld and Rommel 1902, Bacillus brassicae fermentatae Henneberg 1903, Bacillus panis fermentati  Henneberg
1903,
Bacterium soya Saito 1907, Lactobacillus fermentatae Bergey et al. 1923, Lactobacillus rudensis Davis 1937.
Gram-positive rods with rounded ends, 0.7-1.0 x 2.0-4.0 µm, occuring singly or in  
short chains. Gram or methylene blue stains may reveal bipolar or other granulations.
Colonies generally rough or intermediate, flat, may be nearly translucent; generally
non-pigmented, some strains pigmented orange to red. Optimum growth
temperature 30 ºC. Can grow at 15 ºC. No growth at 45 ºC.
Growth factor requirements: calcium pantothenate, niacin, thiamine, and folic acid are
essential.
Isolated from milk, cheese, beer, sauerkraut, sourdough, silage, cow manure, feces, mouth, and intestinal tract of humans, pigs,
birds, cattle and rats. Can produce bacteriocins.
Undetermined. Beer contaminant.
  1. Hammes W.P. and Hertel C., 2009. Genus I. Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 465-511.
  2. Rogosa M., 1974. Genus I. Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901. In: (Eds.) Buchanan R.E. and Gibbons N.E., Bergey’s Manual of
    Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition , The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 576-593.
  3. Kanta Sakamoto, Abelardo Margolles, Hendrik W. van Veen, and Wil N. Konings. Hop Resistance in the Beer Spoilage Bacterium
    Lactobacillus brevis Is Mediated by the ATP-Binding Cassette Multidrug Transporter HorA. J Bacteriol. 2001 September; 183(18):
    5371–5375.
  4. N. Mojgani, G. Sabiri, M. Ashtiani, M. Torshizi. Characterization of Bacteriocins Produced by Lactobacillus brevis NM 24 and L.
    fermentum NM 332 Isolated from Green Olives in Iran. The Internet Journal of Microbiology, Volume 6, Number 2.
Obligately heterofermentative (hexoses are fermented to lactic acid, acetic acid
(ethanol), and CO
2 via the phosphogluconate pathway; pentoses are  fermented to lactic acid and acetic acid by the related pentose
phosphate pathaway).

Positive results for arginine hydrolysis (NH
3 from arginine), fermentation of: arabinose, fructose, glucose (with gas production),
gluconate (with gas production), maltose, melibiose & ribose.

Negative results for fermentation of: amygdalin, cellobiose, mannose, melezitose, rhamnose, salicin, sorbitol & trehalose.

Variable results for fermentation of: esculin, galactose, lactose (weak reaction), mannitol (weak reaction), raffinose, sucrose & xylose.
(c) Costin Stoica
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