"Flexispira (Helicobacter) rappini"
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
The name “Flexispira rappini” is a provisional name given by Bryner. The name was proposed in two abstracts from meetings (Bryner
et al., 1986; Bryner, 1987), but it was never approved. In 1991, analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA–rRNA hybridization
experiments (Paster et al., 1991; Vandamme et al.,1991) revealed that two human “Flexispira rappini” strains belonged to the genus
Helicobacter. Since these studies, additional “H. rappini” strains have been identified, primarily based on their cell morphology and
phylogenetic position. Moreover, there is increasing evidence indicating that strains named “H. rappini” represent more than one
species.
Polyphasic analysis of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the Finnish canine and feline "Flexispira" strains, and the
reference strains of "Flexispira" taxa 2, 3, and 8 showed that they are members of the species
Helicobacter bilis.
Gram-negative, fusiform cell body encircled by spiral periplasmic fibers with bipolar
tufts of sheathed flagella.
H. aurati, H. bilis, and H. trogontum closely resemble “H.
rappini”.
Can grow at 42 ºC, but not at 25 ºC. Resistant to cephalothin and nalidixic acid.
Nonsporulated.
Isolated from  the gastrointestinal mucosa and feces of humans and animals including dogs, mice, and pigs. Strains have also been
isolated from human blood and from aborted ovine fetuses.
Undetermined. Has been isolated from aborted sheep fetuses, from the intestinal mucosa of laboratory mice, and from the stool
samples of two humans with mild chronic diarrhea. One case of  “F. rappini” bacteremia associated with pneumonia in a child.
  1. George M. Garrity, Julia A. Bell and Timothy Lilburn, 2001. Family II. Helicobacteraceae. In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic
    Bacteriology, Second edition, Vol 2, part C, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 1168-1195.
  2. Bryner (J.H.): Flexispira rappini, gen. nov., sp. nov. A motile, urease-producing rod similar to Campylobacter pyloridis. In: B.
    Kaijser and E. Falsen (ed.): Proceedings of the fourth international workshop on Campylobacter infections, Goteborg, Sweden.
    1987, 440-442.
  3. F. E. Dewhirst, J. G. Fox, E. N. Mendes, B. J. Paster, C. E. Gates, C. A. Kirkbride and K. A. Eaton. ‘Flexispira rappini’ strains
    represent at least 10 Helicobacter taxa. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (2000), 50, 1781–1787.
  4. M.-L. Hanninen, R. I. Karenlampi, J. M. K. Koort, T. Mikkonen, and K. J. Bjorkroth. Extension of the species Helicobacter bilis to
    include the reference strains of Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxa 2, 3 and 8 and Finnish canine and feline flexispira strains. Int J Syst
    Evol Microbiol March 2005 55:891-898.
  5. Wee Tee, Karin Leder, Elena Karroum, and Michael Dyall-Smith.“Flexispira rappini” Bacteremia in a Child with Pneumonia. J. Clin.
    Microbiol. June 1998 36:6 1679-1682.
Positive results for catalase, oxidase, urease, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.

Negative results for nitrate reduction, indoxyl acetate hydrolysis, hippurate hydrolysis
and alkaline phosphatase.
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