Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Epsilonproteobacteria, Order Campylobacterales, Family Helicobacteraceae, Genus Helicobacter,
Helicobacter hepaticus Fox, Dewhirst, Tully, Paster, Yan, Taylor, Collins, Gorelick and Ward 1994.
Synonym: "Helicobacter ulmiensis".
Gram-negative, slender, curved to spiral rods, 0.2-0.3 x 1.5-5 μm. Coccoid forms are
found in older cultures. Motile by means of a sheathed, single bipolar flagellum.
Colonies are pinpoint, but cultures often appear as a thin spreading layer on agar
media after two to three days incubation at 37 ºC in microaerobic conditions. The
spreading growth is either translucent or light blue-gray in color. Growth also obtained
under anaerobic, but not aerobic conditions. Hemolytic. Grow at 37 ºC but not at 25 or
42 ºC. Strains grow on media containing 0.04% triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride;
reduction of this compound is concurrently observed and bacterial growth is of a
metallic red sheen. Strains also grow on media containing 0.1% sodium
deoxycholate and on 1% glycine. Sensitive to metronidazole (4 mg/l) but resistant to
5-fluorouracil (100 U/l) and carbenicillin (32 mg/l).
Isolated from liver and intestinal mucosa of laboratory mice. Resistant to cephalothin and nalidixic acid; sensitive to metronidazole.
Causes a chronic active hepatitis in certain strains of mice and, in A/JCr and B6C3F1 varieties. Infection is linked to the development
of hepatic adenoma and hepatocellular carcinoma.
- George M. Garrity, Julia A. Bell and Timothy Lilburn, 2001. Family II. Helicobacteraceae. In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic
Bacteriology, Second edition, Vol 2, part C, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 1168-1195.
- J. G. Fox, F. E. Dewhirst, J. G. Tully, B. J. Paster, L. Yan, N. S. Taylor, M. J. Collins Jr, P. L. Gorelick, and J. M. Ward. Helicobacter
hepaticus sp. nov., a microaerophilic bacterium isolated from livers and intestinal mucosal scrapings from mice. J. Clin. Microbiol.
May 1994 32:5 1238-1245.
- Nancy S. Taylor, Shilu Xu, Prashant Nambiar, Floyd E. Dewhirst, and James G. Fox. Enterohepatic Helicobacter Species Are
Prevalent in Mice from Commercial and Academic Institutions in Asia, Europe, and North America. J. Clin. Microbiol. July 2007 45:
Positive results for oxidase, indoxyl acetate hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, catalase & TTC reduction, urease & H2S production (lead
Negative results for alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase & hippurate hydrolysis.
(c) Costin Stoica