Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Epsilonproteobacteria, Order Campylobacterales, Family Helicobacteraceae, Genus Helicobacter,
Helicobacter cinaedi (Totten et al. 1988) Vandamme et al. 1991.
Historical synonym: Campylobacter cinaedi Totten et al. 1988.
Cells in 48 hours old cultures are predominantly slender spiral rods, 0.3-0.5 x 1.5-5.0
μm. Single curved, S-shaped, and straight rods are occasionally seen. Coccoid forms
develop in old cultures. Rapid corkscrew-like motility by means of a single polar,
48 h old colonies are pinpoint and translucent. On freshly prepared or moist media,
growth often occurs as a flat and spreading zone and discreet colonies may be
rare. No distinct odor. Grow in microaerobic conditions at 37 ºC, but not at 25 ºC
or 42 ºC. Hydrogen stimulates or is essential for growth. No growth in aerobic or
anaerobic conditions. Grow in 1% glycine, but not in 2% NaCl. Strains grow on media
containing 0.04% triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride. Variable tolerance to 1% bile.
Isolated from rectal swabs and blood of homosexual men, from normal or diarrhetic feces of hamsters, cats, dogs, and foxes.
Susceptible to ampicillin, gentamicin, doxycycline, tetracycline, ceftriaxone, rifampin, spectinomycin, nalidixic acid, and
chloramphenicol. Most strains are susceptible to sulfamethoxazole (< 4 μg/ml) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (< 8 μg/ml), and
resistant to 64 μg/ml of cefoperazone. Resistant to trimethoprim. Varying levels of resistance towards clindamycin, erythromycin,
streptomycin, and metronidazole.
Unknown, but associated with gastroenteritis, proctitis, proctocolitis, cellulitis, and arthritis with or without accompanying HIV infection.
Rarely isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or feces of women and children without risk factors for HIV infection.
- George M. Garrity, Julia A. Bell and Timothy Lilburn, 2001. Family II. Helicobacteraceae. In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic
Bacteriology, Second edition,Vol 2, part C, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 1168-1195.
- C. L. Franklin, C. S. Beckwith, R. S. Livingston, L. K. Riley, S. V. Gibson, C. L. Besch-Williford, and R. R. Hook Jr. Isolation of a novel
Helicobacter species, Helicobacter cholecystus sp. nov., from the gallbladders of Syrian hamsters with cholangiofibrosis and
centrilobular pancreatitis.J. Clin. Microbiol. December 1996 34:12 2952-8.
- Stephen L.W. On. Identification Methods for Campylobacters, Helicobacters, and Related Organisms. Clinical Microbiology
Reviews, July 1996, p. 405-422.
Positive results for catalase, oxidase, nitrate reduction, tolerance and reduction of triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride.
Negative results for alkaline phosphatase, urease, indoxyl acetate, H2S production, hippurate hydrolysis, gamma-glutamyl
transpeptidase, and selenite reduction.
(c) Costin Stoica