Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Enterobacteriales, Family Morganellaceae, Genus Photorhabdus,
Photorhabdus kayaii (Hazir et al. 2004) Machado et al. 2018.
Basonym: Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. kayaii Hazir et al. 2004
Gram-negative, large rods, 0.9-1.2 x 2-5 µm. Motility was not observed microscopically
but was found positive in soft agar. Inclusion bodies are present.
Colonies on nutrient agar incubated at 28 ºC for two days are 1.5-1.7 mm in diameter,
convex, granular, with an undulated margin, translucent and cream coloured with a
shade of orange. Maximum temperature for growth is 35-36 ºC in nutrient broth and
37-38 ºC in nutrient broth with 0.5% NaCl. Variable and weakly bioluminescent.
Haemolysis is variable.
Isolated from the intestine of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, collected from grassland or clover
fields in Turkey.
- Hazir S, Stackebrandt E, Lang E, Schumann P, Ehlers RU, Keskin N. Two new subspecies of Photorhabdus luminescens,
isolated from Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. kayaii subsp.
nov. and Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. thracensis subsp. nov. Syst Appl Microbiol 2004; 27:36-42.
- Machado RAR, Wuthrich D, Kuhnert P, Arce CCM, Thonen L, Ruiz C, Zhang X, Robert CAM, Karimi J, Kamali S, et al. Whole-
genome-based revisit of Photorhabdus phylogeny: proposal for the elevation of most Photorhabdus subspecies to the species
level and description of one novel species Photorhabdus bodei sp. nov., and one novel subspecies Photorhabdus laumondii
subsp. clarkei subsp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2018; 68:2664-2681.
Positive results for catalase, citrate utilization, DNase, esculin hydrolysis, indole production, tryptophan deaminase, urease (weakly),
Voges-Proskauer test, acid production from D-fructose, D-glucose, glycerol, gluconate, inositol, D-mannose, maltose,
N-acetyl-glucosamine, D-ribose, L-sorbose, and D-trehalose.
Negative results for arginine dihydrolase, gelatin hydrolysis, H2S production, lysine decarboxylase, nitrate reduction, ornithine
decarboxylase, oxidase, acid production from D-adonitol, D- and L-arabinose, amygdalin, arbutin, D- and L-arabitol, cellobiose,
dulcitol, erythritol, esculin ferric citrate, D- and L-fucose, D-galactose, gentibiose, glycogen, 2- and 5-ketogluconate, inulin, methyl
alpha-D-glucopyranoside, methyl alpha-D-mannoopyranoside, lactose, D-lyxose, melibiose, melezitose, D-mannitol, D-raffinose,
L-rhamnose, salicin, D-sorbitol, D-sucrose, starch, D-tagatose, turanose, methyl beta-D-xylopyranoside, xylitol, D- and L-xylose.
Variable results for beta-galactosidase.
(c) Costin Stoica