Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster I (Clostridium sensu
stricto), Clostridium saccharobutylicum Keis, Shaheen and Jones 2001.
Gram-positive (but Gram-negative in older cultures) rods, 1.4 x 3.8-10.0 µm, occur
singly, in pairs or in short chains; older cells accumulate granulose and produce an
extracellular slime or capsule. Motile by peritrichous flagella. Spores are oval,
terminal or subterminal, 1.1-1.8 x 1.7-3.9 µm, not swelling the cell.
Colonies on CBM agar are smooth, yellow, have irregular margins, and 2-3mm in
Optimum temperature for growth is 30-34 ºC. Optimum pH 6.2-7.0. Acetone, butanol,
ethanol, CO2, H2, and acetic and butyric acids are fermentation products.
Strains of this species used in industrial fermentations were isolated and patented by Commerical Solvents Corporation under the
name “Clostridium saccharo-butyl-acetonicum-liquefaciens” (Jones and Keis, 1995). These industrial strains were used in the
applied fermentation process for the production of the solvents acetone, butanol and ethanol from a variety of sugar- and starch-
Susceptible to rifampin.
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Keis S., Shaheen R. and Jones D.T., 2001. Emended descriptions of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii,
and descriptions of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum sp. nov. and Clostridium saccharobutylicum sp. nov. IJSEM 51,
Milk reaction is positive (curd production). Meat is not digested. Pectin is not fermented.
Positive results for hydrogen production, esculin hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis, starch hydrolysis, substrate utilization and/or acid
production from: amygdalin, arabinose, cellobiose, glucose, glycogen, inositol, lactose, maltose, mannose, melibiose, raffinose,
ribose (weak), salicin, starch, sucrose, trehalose & xylose.
Negative results for catalase, indole production, urease, substrate utilization and/or acid production from: dulcitol, glycerol,
melezitose, rhamnose & sorbitol.
Variable results for substrate utilization and/or acid production from: inulin & mannitol.
(c) Costin Stoica