Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster II (Clostridium
non-sensu stricto), Clostridium limosum Andre in Prevot 1948.
Gram-positive, straight rods, 0.6-1.6 x 1.7-16 µm, occur singly, in pairs or in short
chains. Motility is variable. Peritrichous flagella are present. Spores are oval,
central/subterminal, usually swelling the cell. Sporulation occurs most readily on
chopped-meat slants incubated at 30 ºC or on egg-yolk agar plates incubated for
Surface colonies on blood agar plates are 1–4 mm in diameter, beta-hemolytic,
circular to irregular, raised to convex, translucent, gray , shiny or dull, smooth, with a
mosaic or granular internal structure and an entire, scalloped or undulate edge.
Cultures in PYG broth are turbid with a smooth to ropy sediment and a pH of 6.1-6.5
after incubation for 1 week.
Good growth in nutrient broth with uniform turbidity, moderate sediment. Growth is
inhibited by 6.5% NaCl, 20% bile, or a pH of 8.5.
Optimum temperature for growth is 37 ºC. Grow at 15 ºC (weak) and at 45 ºC. Trace to
moderate gas is produced in PYG deep agar cultures. Acetate is the major product of
metabolism in PYG broth.
Isolated from mud, infections in cattle, water buffalo, alligators and chickens; snake venom; home-preserved meat; human feces;
human clinical specimens including blood, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluids, and lung biopsy from pulmonary infections.
Susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, penicillin G, clindamycin and tetracycline.
Pathogenic for laboratory animals (related with the action of the collagenase and the lecithinase) - variable.
Toxin production is variable.
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Smith L.D.S. and Hobbs G., 1974. Genus III. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) Buchanan R.E. and Gibbons N.E., Bergey’s
Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition , The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 551-572.
Milk reaction is variable. Meat is digested.
Positive results for H2 production, ammonia production, casein hydrolysis, collagenase, DNase, gelatin hydrolysis, H2S production,
lecithinase & RNase.
Negative results for esculin hydrolysis, indole production, lipase, urease, Voges-Proskauer reaction, substrate utilization and/or acid
production from: amygdalin, arabinose, cellobiose, dulcitol, esculin, fructose, galactose, glucose, glycogen, glycerol, inositol, inulin,
lactose, maltose, mannitol, mannose, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, ribose, salicin, sorbitol, sorbose, starch, sucrose,
trehalose & xylose.
Nitrate reduction is variable.
(c) Costin Stoica