Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster XI (Clostridium non
sensu stricto), Clostridium ghonii corrig. Prevot 1938.
Gram-positive, straight rods, 0.5-1.4 x 1.6-6.3 µm, occuring singly or in pairs. Motile by
peritrichous flagella. Spores are oval, central/subterminal, swell the cell; sporulation
occurs most readily on egg-yolk agar plates or in chopped-meat broth incubated for 2
Surface colonies on blood agar plates are usually beta-hemolytic, 0.5–2.0 mm in
diameter, circular to slightly irregular, scalloped to lobate, translucent to semiopaque,
flat to raised, white, shiny, and with a granular or mosaic internal structure. Cultures in
PYG broth are turbid with a smooth to ropy sediment and a pH of 6.2–6.4 after
incubation for 4 days. Growth is stimulated by carbohydrate.
Moderate growth in nutrient broth and cooked meat broth. Growth is inhibited by 6.5%
NaCl, 20% bile. Optimum temperature for growth is 30-37 ºC. Can grow at pH 8.5.
Abundant gas is produced in PYG deep agar cultures. Major products of metabolism in
PYG broth: acetate, isobutyrate, butyrate, isovalerate, isocaproate, ethanol, butanol, isobutanol and moderate amounts of hydrogen.
Isolated from soil and marine sediment, soft tissue infections in humans, human feces, female genital tract. Susceptible to
chloramphenicol, erythromycin, penicillin G, clindamycin and tetracycline.
Nonpathogenic for laboratory animals. Toxin is not produced. Isolated from soft tissue infections in humans.
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Smith L.D.S. and Hobbs G., 1974. Genus III. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) Buchanan R.E. and Gibbons N.E., Bergey’s
Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 551-572.
Milk reaction is variable. Meat digestion is positive.
Positive results for H2 production (moderate), ammonia production, casein hydrolysis, esculin hydrolysis, gelatin hydrolysis, H2S
production, indole production, lecithinase, lipase and neutral red reduction.
Negative results for nitrate reduction, urease, Voges-Proskauer, substrate utilized and/or acid produced from: amygdalin, arabinose,
cellobiose, dulcitol, esculin, fructose, galactose, glycogen, glycerol, inositol, inulin, lactose, mannitol, mannose, melezitose,
melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, ribose, salicin, sorbitol, sorbose, starch, sucrose, trehalose & xylose.
Variable results for resazurin reduction, substrate utilized and/or acid produced from: glucose (weak) & maltose (weak).
(c) Costin Stoica