Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster I (Clostridium sensu
stricto), Clostridium colinum (ex Berkhoff, Campbell, Naylor and Smith 1974) Berkhoff 1985.
Historical synonym: Clostridium colinum Berkhoff, Campbell, Naylor and Smith 1974.
Gram-positive (may become Gram-negative) straight rods, 1 x 3-4 µm, occur singly or
in pairs. Motile by peritrichous flagella. Spores are oval, subterminal.
Surface colonies on blood agar plates are pinpoint–0.5 mm, circular to slightly
irregular, low convex, transparent, grayish white to colorless, shiny, and smooth. Most
strains are alpha-hemolytic. Cultures in PYG broth have a smooth white sediment
without turbidity and have a pH of 5.4 after incubation for 6 days in an atmosphere of
Optimum growth temperature is 37 ºC. Weak growth at 30 ºC. Can grow at 45 ºC.
Growth is stimulated by fermentable carbohydrates. Tryptose-phosphate-glucose
agar with 8% horse plasma has been recommended for isolation. Stock cultures
usually grow on BHI agar. Moderate gas is produced in PYG deep agar cultures
major products of metabolism in PYG broth: H2, acetic and formic acids.
Isolated from intestinal tracts of quail, pheasants, grouse, partridge, chickens, and turkeys. Susceptible to chloramphenicol,
clindamycin, erythromycin, penicillin G and tetracycline.
Not pathogenic for laboratory animals (Guinea pigs).
Pathogenic to quail, chickens and pheasants, causing ulcerative enteritis or liver necrosis and death in less than 18 hours.
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Smith L.D.S. and Hobbs G., 1975. Genus III. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) Buchanan R.E. and Gibbons N.E., Bergey’s
Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition , The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 551-572.
- Secasiu V., 2001. Boli produse de germeni din genul Clostridium. In: Boli infectioase ale animalelor, Moga Manzat R., Ed.
Brumar, Timisoara, 481-612.
- Berkhoff GA, Campbell SG, Naylor HB, Smith LD. Etiology and pathogenesis of ulcerative enteritis ("quail disease").
Characterization of the causative anaerobe. Avian Dis. 1974 Apr-Jun;18(2):195-204.
H2 is produced in large amounts. Milk reaction and meat digestion are negative.
Positive results for esculin hydrolysis, hydrolysis of gelatin (very slowly), substrate utilized and/or acid produced from: fructose,
galactose (weak), glucose, maltose, mannose, raffinose, sucrose & trehalose.
Negative results for indole production, lecithinase, lipase, nitrate reduction, starch hydrolysis, substrate utilized and/or acid produced
from: arabinose, glycogen, lactose, melezitose, rhamnose, sorbitol & xylose.
Variable results for substrate utilized and/or acid produced from: amygdalin (weak), cellobiose, inulin, mannitol, ribose (weak), salicin
(weak) & starch (weak).
(c) Costin Stoica