Phylum Firmicutes, Class Clostridia, Order Clostridiales, Family Clostridiaceae, Genus Clostridium, Cluster I (Clostridium sensu
stricto), Clostridium beijerinckii Donker 1926, emend. Keis, Shaheen and Jones 2001.
Gram-positive (Gram-negative in older cultures), straight rods, 0.5-1.7 x 1.7-8.0 µm,
occurring singly, in pairs or in short chains. Motile by peritrichous flagella. Spores are
oval, eccentric, subterminal, swelling the cell; sporulation occurs most readily on
chopped-meat agar slants incubated at 30 ºC.
Surface colonies on blood agar plates are 1–5 mm in diameter, circular to irregular,
entire to scalloped, flat to raised, translucent, gray, shiny and smooth. Hemolysis is
variable (alpha, beta or negative).
Optimum growth at: 37 ºC and pH 7.0. Weak and variable growth at 25 or 45 ºC.
Growth is inhibited by 6.5% NaCl and by 20% bile. Growth is stimulated by
fermentable carbohydrates. Strains are nutritionally fastidious, requiring a complex
mixture of growth factors such as are supplied by yeast extract.
PYG broth cultures are turbid with a smooth to flocculent sediment and have a pH of
4.6-5.4 after incubation for 5 days. Abundant gas is detected in PYG deep agar
cultures. Major products of metabolism in PYG broth: butyric and acetic acids.
Isolated from soil, infected wounds, fermenting olives, spoiled candy, human feces.
Susceptible to erythromycin, tetracycline.
Nonpathogenic for laboratory animals (mouse). Toxin is not produced.
- N.A. Logan and P. De Vos, 2009. Genus I. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
- Smith L.D.S. and Hobbs G., 1975. Genus III. Clostridium Prazmowski 1880. In: (Eds.) Buchanan R.E. and Gibbons N.E., Bergey’s
Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition , The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 551-572.
- Keis S., Shaheen R. and Jones D.T., 2001. Emended descriptions of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii,
and descriptions of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum sp. nov. and Clostridium saccharobutylicum sp. nov. IJSEM 51,
H2 is produced in large amounts. Milk reaction is positive (curd). Meat digestion is negative. Atmospheric N2 is fixed.
Positive results for esculin hydrolysis, neuraminidase, neutral red reduction, substrate utilized and/or acid produced from: cellobiose,
dextrin, fructose, galactose, glucose, glycerol (weak), lactose, maltose, mannose, pectin, sucrose, turanose & xylose.
Negative results for catalase, H2S production, indole production, lecithinase, lipase, nitrate reduction, urease, substrate utilized and/or
acid produced from sorbose.
Variable results for ammonia production, gelatin hydrolysis, resazurin reduction, starch hydrolysis, substrate utilized and/or acid
produced from: amygdalin, arabinose, D- or L-arabitol, dulcitol, glycogen, inositol, inulin, mannitol, melezitose, melibiose, raffinose,
rhamnose, ribose, salicin, sorbitol, starch & trehalose.
(c) Costin Stoica