Phylum “Actinobacteria”, Class Actinobacteria, Order Bifidobacteriales, Family Bifidobacteriaceae, Genus Bifidobacterium,
Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum Scardovi, Trovatelli, Biavati and Zani 1979.
Gram-positive irregularly rods, 0.6-0.7 X 2-5 µm, arranged in pairs which form angles
with protuberances, knobs, or short branches; occasionally bifid forms or pairs of
cells with swollen ends. Some strains show distorted chains of small coccoid and
irregular cells or long, branched, hyphal-like cells. Non-motile. Non-spore-forming.
colonies are smooth, convex, entire margins, cream to white, glistening, and soft
consistency. Anaerobic. Grows at 28-42 ºC (optimum 39-41 ºC), pH 6.5-7.9 (optimum
pH 6.0-7.2). No growth at pH 4.5 or 8.0.
Abundant in sewage, feces of breast- and bottle-fed infants, feces of adult humans and in the feces of suckling calves.
- Biavati B, Mattarelli P, 2012. Genus I. Bifidobacterium Orla-Jensen 1924. In: Parte et al. (ed). Bergey’s manual of systematic
bacteriology: The Actinobacteria,Part A and B. Springer, New York, 171-206.
- Scardovi V, Trovatelli B, Biavati B, and Zani G, 1979. Bifidobacterium cuniculi, Bifidobacterium choerinum, Bifidobacterium boum
and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum: four new species and their deoxyribonucleic acid homology relationships. Int J Syst
Bacteriology 29(4), 291-311.
- Morita H, Nakano A, Onoda H, Toh H, Oshima K et al., 2011. Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense sp. nov., isolated from healthy infant
faeces. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61, 2610-2615.
Positive results for acid phosphatase, alpha- and beta-galactosidase, alpha- and beta-glucosidase, leucine arylamidase, Voges-
Proskauer test, acid production from amylopectin, amylose, L-arabinose, dextrin, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose (without gas
production), D-lactose, maltose, melibiose, raffinose, D-ribose, starch, sucrose, and D-xylose.
Negative results for alkaline phosphatase, catalase, cystine arylamidase, esterase lipase (C8), esterase (C4), alpha-fucosidase,
beta-glucuronidase, gelatin liquefaction, indole production, lipase (C14), alpha-mannosidase, nitrate reduction, N-acetyl-beta-
glucosaminidase, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, valine arylamidase, acid production from D-
fucose, D-galactosamine, D-glucosamine, D-glucuronate, glycerol, inulin, D-mannitol, melezitose, pectin, porcine gastric mucin, and
Ammonia is not produced from urea or arginine.
Variable results for acid production from cellobiose, L-fucose, gluconate (strains from calves are negative) with gas production (CO2) ,
D-mannose, salicin, D-sorbitol (strains isolated from feces of infants are all positive), trehalose and xylan.
(c) Costin Stoica