Paenibacillus macquariensis
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Bacillales, Family Paenibacillaceae, Genus Paenibacillus, Paenibacillus macquariensis
(Marshall and Ohye 1966) Ash, Priest and Collins 1994. Synonym: Bacillus macquariensis  Marshall and Ohye 1966. Two subspecies:
- P. macquariensis subsp. defensor
Hoshino et al., 2009.
- P. macquariensis subsp. macquariensis Hoshino et al., 2009.
P. macquariensis subsp. macquariensis: Gram positive, 0.5-0.7 x 2.0-4.5 μm, motile
bacillus. Spores: ellipsoidal, subterminal or terminal,  swelling the sporangium.
P. macquariensis subsp. defensor: Gram-variable, 0.5–0.9 x 1.9–3.5 µm rods. Motile
by peritrichous flagella. Spores form centrally.
P. macquariensis subsp. macquariensis: colonies on nutrient agar are opaque,
smooth with translucent fimbriate edges, and  0.5 to 1 mm in diameter after 4 days
incubation at 20 ºC.
P. macquariensis subsp. defensor: colonies grown on nutrient agar and potato
dextrose agar are circular, slightly convex, bright and cream coloured.
Grow in anaerobic agar.
Psychrophilic; grow at: 0 ºC in 3 weeks (4 ºC minimum for
P. macquariensis subsp.
); optimum 15-20 ºC (10-15 ºC for P. macquariensis subsp. defensor);
maximum 25 ºC (31 ºC for
P. macquariensis subsp. defensor).
Grow in 2% NaCl. No growth in 5 or 10% NaCl. No growth at pH 5.7.
P. macquariensis subsp. macquariensis was isolated from soil from Macquarie Island (subantarctic).
P. macquariensis subsp. defensor was isolated from boreal soil collected from the Koni Peninsula, Magadan Nature Reserve, Oblast
Magadan, Russian Far East, Russia.
Subsp. defensor inhibit the production of sclerotia by the psychrophilic phytopathogenic fungus
Typhula ishikariensis.
Growth with 0.001 % lysozyme is positive  for subsp. defensor and negative for subsp. macquariensis.
P. macquariensis subsp. defensor is antagonist to the psychrophilic phytopathogenic fungus Typhula ishikariensis.
  1. Gordon R.E., Haynes W.C., Pang C.H. (1973) – The genus Bacillus . Agriculture Handbook No. 427, U.S.D.A., Washington D.C.
  2. Buchanan R.E., Gibbons N.E., Cowan S.T., Holt J.G., Liston J., Murray R.G.E., Niven C.F., Ravin A.W., Stanier R.W. ( 1974) – Bergey’
    s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eight Edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore.
  3. Priest F.G., 2009. Genus I. Paenibacillus Ash, Priest and Collins 1994. In: (Eds.) P.D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W.
    Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes,
    Springer, 269-295.
  4. Hoshino T., Nakabayashi T., Hirota K., Matsuno T., Koiwa R., Fujiu S., Saito I., Tkachenko O.B., Matsuyama H. and Yumoto I. 2009.
    Paenibacillus macquariensis subsp. defensor subsp. nov., isolated from boreal soil. IJSEM 59, 2074-2079.
Positive results for catalase, starch hydrolysis, beta-glucosidase, beta-galactosidase, hydrolysis of DNA, acid production from: ribose,
D-fructose,  methyl alpha-D-xyloside, methyl alpha-D-glucoside, gluconate, amygdalin, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, arbutin,
salicin, lactose, cellobiose, maltose, melibiose, melezitose, D-mannose, sucrose, methyl alpha-D-mannoside, trehalose, raffinose,
turanose, beta-gentiobiose, starch and glycogen.

Negative results for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, decomposition of casein, decomposition of tyrosine, Voges-Proskauer test, citrate
utilization, indole production, deamination of phenylalanine, hydrolysis of gelatin, hydrolysis of urea, dihydroxyacetone, acid production
from: erythritol, L-xylose, xylitol, adonitol, D-arabinose, D- arabitol, L-arabitol, dulcitol, D-fucose, glycerol, inositol, inulin, 2- or
5-ketogluconate, rhamnose, sorbitol, L-sorbose and tagatose.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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Growth at 0 ºC
(3 weeks)
Growth at 31 ºC
Spores position
Growth with
0.001% lysozyme
subsp. macquariensis
sub / terminal
subsp. defensor
Differential characters of Paenibacillus macquariensis subspecies:
Legend: + positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%