Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Aeromonadales, Family Aeromonadaceae, Genus Tolumonas,
Tolumonas auensis Fischer-Romero et al. 1996.
Gram-negative rods, 2.5–3.2 x 0.9–1.2 µm, singly or grouped in pairs. Nonmotile.
Colonies on agar plates and agar deeps are 0.3 to 0.5 mm in diameter, lens shaped,
and white. Growth occurs under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Transforms
phenylalanine and other phenyl precursors into toluene. Toluene is produced from
phenylalanine, phenylacetate, phenyllactate, and phenylpyruvate only in the presence
of an additional carbon source. Phenol is produced when phenylalanine is replaced
by tyrosine. Optimum temperature for anaerobic growth is 22 ºC.
Isolated from anoxic sediments of a freshwater lake.
- C. Fischer-Romero, B. J. Tindall, F. Juttner. Tolumonas auensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a Toluene-Producing Bacterium from Anoxic
Sediments of a Freshwater Lake. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol, January 1996 46: 183-188.
- Amy Martin-Carnahan and Samuel W. Joseph 2004. Order XII. Aeromonadales ord. nov. In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic
Bacteriology, Second edition,Vol two, part B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp. 556-587.
Positive results for catalase (anaerobic cultures are catalase negative).
Negative results for exoprotease, H2S production, indole production, lipase, lecithinase, oxidase & urease.
Can utilize as carbon source, under anaerobic conditions: D-arabinose, D-cellobiose, D-fructose, D-glucose, glycogen, inulin,
maltose, D-mannose, D-melezitose, melibiose, D-raffinose, L-rhamnose, D-ribose, salicin, sucrose, D-trehalose, D-mannitol &
Can utilize as carbon source, under aerobic conditions: Tween 40, Tween 80, L-arabinose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-glucose,
methyl-pyruvate, monomethyl succinate, acetic acid, cis-aconitic acid, D-galacturonic acid, D-gluconic acid, D-glucuronic acid,
beta-hydroxybutyric acid, alpha-ketoglutaric acid, DL-lactic acid, malonic acid, quinic acid, sebacic acid, succinic acid, glucuronamide,
L-alanine, L-asparagine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-histidine, L-threonine, urocanic acid & inosine.
(c) Costin Stoica