Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Vibrionales, Family Vibrionaceae, Genus Vibrio, Vibrio parahaemolyticus
(Fujino, Okuno, Nakada, Aoyama, Fukai, Mukai and Ueho 1951) Sakazaki, Iwanami and Fukumi 1963.

Historical synonyms:
Pasteurella parahaemolytica Fujino, Okuno, Nakada, Aoyama, Fukai, Mukai and Ueho 1951; Oceanomonas
(Fujino, Okuno, Nakada, Aoyama, Fukai, Mukai and Ueho 1951) Miyamoto, Nakamura and Takizawa 1961;
Oceanomonas enteritidis (Takikawa) Miyamoto, Nakamura and Takizawa 1961; Beneckea parahaemolytica (Fujino, Okuno, Nakada,
Aoyama, Fukai, Mukai and Ueho 1951) Baumann, Baumann and Mandel 1971;
Pseudomonas enteritis Takikawa 1958;
Gram-negative, straight rods, motile by monotrichous flagella. Not swarming on
complex media.  Fimbriae / pili  are produced. Lateral flagella on solid media.
Can grow in nutrient broth with: 1% NaCl, 6% NaCl & 8% NaCl. No growth in 0% NaCl,
10% NaCl & 12% NaCl. Growth temperature  30 - 40 ºC. No growth at 4 ºC.
Some strains are β-hemolytic on Watgatsuma agar (Kanagawa positive strains) and
some strains are not (Kanagawa negative strains). Green colonies on TCBS agar.
Occurs in human clinical specimens and is an important cause of diarrhea. Also occurs in marine environments and is concentrated
by filter feeders such as oysters. Serve as host for predatory marine Bdellovibrio.The ability of Bdellovibrio to lyse
V. parahaemolyticus
is temperature dependent.
Bacteriophage have been found in
V. parahaemolyticus. Resistant to O/129 vibriostatic agent (10 µg).
Outbreaks of gastroenteritis caused by V. parahaemolyticus occur worldwide (foodborne enteritis associated with seafood).
13 O antigens and more than 60 K antigens are recognized as pandemic due to V. parahaemolyticus O3/K6 has been documented
Kanagawa positive strains elaborate a thermostable direct hemolysin (abbreviated TDH) enterotoxigenic in rabbit ileal loops, and are
causing diarrhea in human. Kanagawa negative strains produce a different hemolysin, named TDH-related hemolysin (abbreviated
TRH), and are also associated with gastroenteritis.
Fimbriae/pili are implicated in colonization.
Produces a capsule, but its role in virulence is not known.
  1. J.J. Farmer, M. Janda, 2004. Family I. Vibrionaceae. In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition,Vol two, part
    B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp. 491-546.
  2. J. G.Holt et al., 1994. Group 5 Facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative rods. Subgroup 2 Family Vibrionaceae. In: Begey’s Manual of
    Determinative Bacteriology, 9-th edition, Williams & Wilkins. pp. 190-194.
  3. Judith A. Johnson, 2006. Vibrio. In: Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10 edition, Vol. 2, Bacteriology,
    Edward Arnold Ltd., 1507-1523.
  4. J. M. Shewan and M. Veron, 1974.Genus I. Vibrio.In.: Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, Eighth Edition, R. E.
    Buchanan and N.E.Gibbons (Editors), The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 340-345.
Positive results for indole (Heart Infusion Broth, 1% NaCl), methyl red (1% NaCl), lysine
(1%NaCl), ornithine (1% NaCl), gelatin hydrolysis (1%NaCl, 22 ºC), nitrate reduction to
nitrite, oxidase, lipase, acid production D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, maltose,
D-mannitol, D-mannose & trehalose.

Negative results for Voges-Proskauer (1% NaCl), citrate (Simmons), H
2S on TSI, urea hydrolysis, phenylalanine deaminase, arginine
(1% NaCl), esculin hydrolysis, ONPG test, gas production from D-glucose, acid production from: D-adonitol , D-arabitol, cellobiose,
dulcitol, myo-inositol, lactose, melibiose, raffinose, L-rhamnose, salicin, D-sorbitol, sucrose & D-xylose.

Variable results for acid production from glycerol.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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