Grimontia (Vibrio) hollisae
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Vibrionales, Family Vibrionaceae, Genus Grimontia, Grimontia hollisae  
(Hickman et al. 1982) Thompson et al. 2003, comb. nov. (type and only species of the genus).
Synonyms:
Vibrio hollisae Hickman, Farmer, Hollis, Fanning, Steigerwalt, Weaver and Brenner 1982, “Group EF-13” Special
Bacteriology Laboratory, CDC.
Gram-negative, small cells, motile by a single polar flagellum. No lateral flagella on
solid media. Not swarming on complex media.
Can grow in nutrient broth with: 1% NaCl, 6% NaCl & 8% NaCl. No growth in 0%
NaCl, 10% NaCl & 12% NaCl.Optimal growth at  30-35 ºC.
Media: Trypticase soy agar. No growth on Mac Conkey agar or weak growth on TCBS.
Isolated from human blood & feces, rarely from other human or environmental sources. The type strain was isolated from human
feces, some strains isolated from marine moluscs and fish
(Rhynchopelates oxyrhynchus).
Sporadic cases of  diarrhea in humans. May cause diarrhea (sometimes requiring hospitalization) in individuals who consumed raw
shellfish (especially oysters) or more rarely fish raw or undercooked.
Produce a heat-labile enterotoxin responsible for elongation of CHO (Chinese Hamster Ovary cell). Synthesizes a hemolysin similar
to the thermostable hemolysin of
Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
In vitro, can adhere and enter the epithelial cells.
  1. J.J. Farmer, M. Janda, 2004. Family I. Vibrionaceae. In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition,Vol two, part
    B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp. 491-546.
  2. J. G.Holt et al., 1994. Group 5 Facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative rods. Subgroup 2 Family Vibrionaceae. In: Begey’s Manual of
    Determinative Bacteriology, 9-th edition, Williams & Wilkins. pp. 190-194.
  3. Judith A. Johnson, 2006. Vibrio. In: Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10 edition, Vol. 2, Bacteriology,
    Edward Arnold Ltd., 1507-1523.
  4. Thompson, Fabiano L., Hoste, Bart, Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien, Swings, Jean. Reclassification of Vibrio hollisae as Grimontia
    hollisae gen. nov., comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2003 53: 1615-1617.
Sensitivity to O129 is variable.

Positive results for nitrate reduction to nitrite, oxidase, indole (Heart Infusion Broth, 1%
NaCl), acid production from: D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-mannose.

Negative results for methyl red (1% NaCl), Voges-Proskauer (1% NaCl), citrate (Simmons), H
2S on TSI, urea hydrolysis,
phenylalanine deaminase, arginine (1% NaCl), lysine (1% NaCl), ornithine (1% NaCl), gelatin hydrolysis (1% NaCl, 22 °C), esculin
hydrolysis, lipase, ONPG test, gas from D-glucose, acid production from: D-adonitol, D-arabitol, cellobiose, dulcitol, glycerol,
myo-inositol, lactose, maltose, D-mannitol, melibiose, raffinose, L-rhamnose, salicin, D-sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose & D-xylose.
(c) Costin Stoica
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