Vibrio fluvialis
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Vibrionales, Family Vibrionaceae, Genus Vibrio, Vibrio fluvialis  Lee,
Shread, Furniss and Bryant 1981.
V. fluvialis biogroup I (did not produce gas during fermentation, isolated from cases of human diarrhea and from environment);
V. fluvialis biogroup II (produce gas during fermentation, isolated from the environment but not from humans with diarrhea), later
named
V. furnissii.
Historical synonyms: “marine aeromonads”, “Group F” Furniss et al. 1977, “Group EF6” Huq et al. 1980.
Gram-negative, straight or curved  rods, variable motility. Sometimes may produce
lateral flagella on solid media. Not swarming on complex media.
Produce yellow colonies on TCBS agar (ferment sucrose). Beta-hemolytic on T-soy
agar with 5% sheep blood. Can grow in nutrient broth with: 1% NaCl, 6% NaCl, 8%
NaCl & 10% NaCl. No growth in 0% or 12% NaCl. Grow at  30 -40 ºC. No growth at 4 ºC.
Isolated from natural waters (estuaries) and animals that lives there; occasional from human clinical samples. Sensible to O/129
vibriostatic agent 10 µg.
Causes sporadic human diarrhea and occasional outbreaks. Gastroenteritis associated with V. fluvialis  is described as “cholera-like”
About 20% of isolates give a positive rabbit ileal loop test for enterotoxin.
Some studies have provided additional evidence for enterotoxin or for “enterotoxin-like” molecules.
  1. J.J. Farmer, M. Janda, 2004. Family I. Vibrionaceae. In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition,Vol two, part
    B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp. 491-546.
  2. J. G.Holt et al., 1994. Group 5 Facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative rods. Subgroup 2 Family Vibrionaceae. In: Begey’s Manual of
    Determinative Bacteriology, 9-th edition, Williams & Wilkins. pp. 190-194.
  3. Judith A. Johnson, 2006. Vibrio. In: Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10 edition, Vol. 2, Bacteriology,
    Edward Arnold Ltd., 1507-1523.
Positive for methyl red (1% NaCl), citrate utilization (Simmons), arginine (1% NaCl),
nitrate reduction to nitrite, oxidase, lipase, gelatin hydrolysis (1% NaCl, 22 ºC), acid
production from D-glucose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, maltose, D-mannitol,
D-mannose, sucrose & trehalose.

Negative for indole production (Heart Infusion Broth, 1% NaCl), Voges-Proskauer (1% NaCl), H
2S on TSI, urea hydrolysis, esculin
hydrolysis, phenylalanine deaminase, ornithine (1% NaCl), gas production from D-glucose, acid production from dulcitol, glycerol,
myo-inositol, lactose, melibiose, raffinose, L-rhamnose, salicin, D-sorbitol & D-xylose.

Variable for D-arabitol, cellobiose & ONPG test.
(c) Costin Stoica
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