Subspecies
differentiation
Starch
hydrolysis
Acid from
lactose
Acid from
maltose
Acid from
fructose
Tween 40
utilization
D-trehalose
utilization
L-histidine
utilization
Propionic acid
utilization
Acetic acid
utilization
Lactic acid
utilization
Subsp. syzygii
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
Subsp. indonesiensis
-
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
Subsp. celebesensis
+
-
-
-
+
-
+
-
-
+
Ralstonia syzygii
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Burkholderiales, Family Burkholderiaceae, Genus Ralstonia, Ralstonia
syzygii
 (Roberts et al. 1990) Vaneechoutte et al. 2004.
Divided in three subspecies:
-
Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis Safni et al. 2014 (strains of BDB "banana blood" disease bacterium),
-
Ralstonia syzygii subsp. indonesiensis Safni et al. 2014 (former Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype IV),
-
Ralstonia syzygii subsp. syzygii Safni et al. 2014.

Historical synonyms:
Pseudomonas syzygii Roberts et al. 1990, Pseudomonas
celebensis
Gaumann, 1921.
Gram-negative, nonsporulating, noncapsulated, nonmotile, straight rods with
rounded ends, 0.5-0.6 x 1.0-2.5 μm that occur singly, in pairs or in short chains.
Aerobic. Optimum temperature for growth is 28 ºC. No growth occurs at 4 or 37 ºC.
Growth is poor (colonies of <1 mm after 7 days) or absent on many common media.
Good growth (colonies up to 5 mm after 7-12 days) occurs on iron salts-containing
media: buffered charcoal yeast extract agar, Periwinkle wilt medium and
iron-supplemented casamino acids medium. Grow at pH 6.0-7.5. Does not grow in
the presence of 1% NaCl; variable growth in 0.5% NaCl.
Subsp. syzygii was solated from xylem tissues of the clove tree (Syzygium aromaticum) and other Syzygium spp., and from insect
vectors (Hindola spp.) in Indonesia. Resistant to colistin.
Subsp. celebesensis was isolated from banana, in Indonesia.
Subsp. indonesiensis was isolated from potato, tomato, clove and chilli pepper, in Indonesia.
Plant pathogens.
Subsp. syzygii is pathogenic to the clove tree (Syzygium aromaticum).
Subsp. celebesensis is the causal agent of banana blood disease, a destructive bacterial wilt disease affecting bananas (Musa
acuminata
) and plantains (Musa balbisiana x acuminata).
  1. Vaneechoutte, Mario, Kampfer, Peter, De Baere, Thierry, Falsen, Enevold, Verschraegen, Gerda Wautersia gen. nov., a novel
    genus accommodating the phylogenetic lineage including Ralstonia eutropha and related species, and proposal of Ralstonia
    [Pseudomonas] syzygii (Roberts et al. 1990) comb. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2004 54: 317-327.
  2. Safni, I., Cleenwerck, I., De Vos, P., Fegan, M., Sly, L. and Kappler, U. 2014. Polyphasic taxonomic revision of the Ralstonia
    solanacearum species complex: proposal to emend the descriptions of Ralstonia solanacearum and Ralstonia syzygii and
    reclassify current R. syzygii strains as Ralstonia syzygii subsp. syzygii subsp. nov., R. solanacearum phylotype IV strains as
    Ralstonia syzygii subsp. indonesiensis subsp. nov., banana blood disease bacterium strains as Ralstonia syzygii subsp.
    celebesensis subsp. nov. and R. solanacearum phylotype I and III strains as Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum sp. nov. Int. J. Syst.
    Evol. Microbiol., 64, 3087-3103.
Positive results for oxidase, catalase, alkaline and acid phosphatases, esterase, esterase lipase, leucine arylamidase, urease,
naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, utilization of fumarate, DL-malate, pyruvate, succinate, L-aspartate, L-glutamate, L-tyrosine,
D-glucose & sucrose.

Negative results for levan production, arginine dihydrolase , lecithinase, aesculin hydrolysis, starch hydrolysis, trypsin, chymotrypsin,
alpha- or beta-galactosidase, beta-glucuronidase, alpha- or beta-glucosidase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosamidase, alpha-mannosidase,
alpha-fucosidase, utilization of beta-alanine, L-arginine, L-cysteine, glycine, L-leucine, L-lysine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine,
DL-serine, L-threonine, L-trytophan, L-valine, L-arabinose, D-cellobiose, D-galactose, lactose, maltose, D-mannose, D-raffinose,
D-rhamnose, D-ribose, D-xylose, acetate, DL-lactate, D-tartrate, m-erythritol, glycerol, mannitol & sorbitol.

Variable results for tyrosinase activity, nitrate reduction, utilization of L-asparagine, L-histidine, fructose, citrate & 2-oxoglutarate.
(c) Costin Stoica
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