Burkholderia (Pseudomonas)  glumae
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Burkholderiales, Family Burkholderiaceae, Genus Burkholderia,  
Burkholderia glumae
(Kurita and Tabei 1967) Urakami et al. 1994, comb. nov.
Synonym:
Pseudomonas glumae  Kurita and Tabei 1967.
Gram-negative rods, 0.5-0.7 x 1.5-2.5 µm, motile by means of two to four flagella.
Optimal growth temperature 30 ºC. Temperature limits for growth: 11-40 ºC. Grows on
PYG agar. A fluorescent pigment is produced in potato agar.
Isolated in association with various plants including tomato, hot pepper, eggplant, potato, perilla, sesame and sunflower. It is found
epiphytically on rice leaves and in rice rhizosphere.
One isolate from human lung lesions.
Pathogenic for rice as a major cause of rice grain discoloration and seedling rot. Produce two plant-affecting toxins, fervenulin and
toxoflavin.
Possible opportunistic pathogen for immunodeficient organisms (one report in  an infant with cystic fibrosis).
  1. Urakami, Teizi, Ito-Yoshida, Chieko, Araki, Hisaya, Kijima, Toshio, Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro, Komagata, Kazuo. Transfer of
    Pseudomonas plantarii and Pseudomonas glumae to Burkholderia as Burkholderia spp. and Description of Burkholderia vandii
    sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1994 44: 235-245.
  2. Jason B. Weinberg, Barbara D. Alexander, Joseph M. Majure, Larry W. Williams, Jason Y. Kim, Peter Vandamme, and John J.
    LiPuma. Burkholderia glumae Infection in an Infant with Chronic Granulomatous Disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2007 February; 45(2):
    662–665.
  3. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2, part C: The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria. Class II.
    Betaproteobacteria, Order I. Burkholderiales, 575-623.
  4. Teizi Urakami, Chieko Ito-Yoshida, Hisaya Araki, Toshio Kijima, Ken-Ichiro Suzuki, and Kazuo Komagata: Transfer of
    Pseudomonas plantarii and Pseudomonas glumae to Burkholderia as Burkholderia spp. and Description of Burkholderia vandii
    sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol April 1994 44:235-245.
Positive for denitrification, hydrolysis of gelatin & urease. Can utilize L-arabinose,
D-xylose, D-glucose, glycerol, D-mannose, D-galactose, trehalose, D-sorbitol,
D-mannitol, inositol, L-isoleucine, L-valine, norleucine, sarcosine, ethanol, n-butanol,
n-propanol, mono-ethanolamine, tryptamine, citric acid, levulic acid, caprylic acid,
n-heptanoic acid, azelaic acid & pimelic acid.

Nitrate reduction, starch hydrolysis, phenylalanine deaminase, H
2S production, arginine dihydrolase are negative.
Negative for utilization of  (D-fructose,  maltose), L-rhamnose, glycine, sucrose,  lactose, L-threonine, ornitine, DL-citrulline,
isobutanol, propylene glycol, 2,3-butanediol,  n-amylamine, benzylamine, acetamide, suberic acid, mesaconic acid, tartaric acid,
itaconic acid, citraconic acid, benzoylformic acid, mandelic acid, glutaric acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid & glycolic acid.

Extracellular PHB hydrolysis & oxidase reaction are variable.
(c) Costin Stoica
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