Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pseudomonadales, Family Pseudomonadaceae, Genus Pseudomonas,
Pseudomonas cepacia
Burkholder 1950.
Pseudomonas multivorans Stanier et al. 1966 ;
Moved to Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Burkholderiales, Family Burkholderiaceae, Genus Burkholderia,
Burkholderia cepacia,
Yabuuchi et al. 1993 (type species of the genus).
Burkholderia cepacia complex includes species: Burkholderia anthina, B. ambifaria, B. arboris, B.cepacia, B. cenocepacia, B. diffusa,
B. dolosa, B. latens, B. metallica, B. multivorans, B. pyrrocinia, B. seminalis, B. stabilis & B.  vietnamiensis

Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies I     => Burkholderia cepacia sensu stricto
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies II    => Burkholderia multivorans
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies III   => Burkholderia cenocepacia
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies IV   => Burkholderia stabilis
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies V    => Burkholderia vitenamiensis
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies VI   => Burkholderia dolosa
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies VII  => Burkholderia ambifaria
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies VIII => Burkholderia anthina
Burkholderia cepacia genomospecies IX   => Burkholderia pyrrocinia.
Gram-negative rods, 0.8-2 μm, motile.
Nonfluorescent pigments produced by most strains in colonies and in surrounding
medium (usually yellow or greenish).  Can produce a large variety of pigments (green,
brownish, red, violet etc.)
Obligately aerobic, optimal growth temperature 30-35 ºC. Media: Trypticase Soy Agar, Nutrient agar, Mueller-Hinton agar, BCSA
medium (NaCl: 5 g, Saccharose 10 g, Lactose 10 g, Phennol red 0.08 g, Crystal violet 0.02 g, Trypticase peptone 10 g, Yeast extract
1.5 g,  Agar 14 g, Polymyxin sulfate B 600 000 UI, Gentamycin 0.01, Vancomycin 0.025, H
2O ad 1000 ml).
Isolated from water, soil, plants (Allium cepa - onion), animals.
Plant pathogen (rice, onion);
Produces pneumonia and endocarditis in horse, mammitis in sheeps; nosocomial infections, urinary tract infections and pneumonia
in humans (cystic fibrosis). Respiratory infections may be fatal.
  1. Palleroni N.J. & Holmes B.: Pseudomonas cepacia sp. nov., nom. rev. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1981, 31, 479-481.
  2. Yabuuchi E., Kosako Y., Oyaizu H., Yano I., Hotta H., Hashimoto Y., Ezaki T. & Arakawa M.: Proposal of Burkholderia gen. nov. and
    transfer of seven species of the genus Pseudomonas homology group II to the new genus, with the type species Burkholderia
    cepacia (Palleroni and Holmes 1981) comb. nov. Microbiol. Immunol., 1992, 36, 1251-1275.
  3. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 2, part C: The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria. Class II.
    Betaproteobacteria, Order I. Burkholderiales, 575-623.
  4. Vanlaere E., Lipuma J.J., Baldwin A., Henry D., De Brandt E., Mahenthiralingam E., Speert D., Dowson C. & Vandamme P.:
    Burkholderia latens sp. nov., Burkholderia diffusa sp. nov., Burkholderia arboris sp. nov., Burkholderia seminalis sp. nov. and
    Burkholderia metallica sp. nov., novel species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 2008, 58,
  5. Teizi Urakami, Chieko Ito-Yoshida, Hisaya Araki, Toshio Kijima, Ken-Ichiro Suzuki, and Kazuo Komagata: Transfer of
    Pseudomonas plantarii and Pseudomonas glumae to Burkholderia as Burkholderia spp. and Description of Burkholderia vandii
    sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol April 1994 44:235-245.
  6. Viallard, Veronique, Poirier, Isabelle, Cournoyer, Benoit, Haurat, Jacqueline, Wiebkin, Sue, Ophel-Keller, Kathy, Balandreau,
    Jacques. Burkholderia graminis sp. nov., a rhizospheric Burkholderia species, and reassessment of [Pseudomonas]
    phenazinium, [Pseudomonas] pyrrocinia and [Pseudomonas] glathei as Burkholderia. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1998 48: 549-563.
Utilize D-ribose, arabinose, fucose, trehalose, cellobiose, salicin, N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, arbutin, 2- & 5-ketogluconate,
D-lyxose, ribose, tagatose, adonitol, arabitol, dulcitol, xylitol, aconitate, adipate, azelate, butyrate, caprate, caproate, caprylate,
citraconate, citrate,
propionate, glutarate, glycolate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, itaconate, valerate, tartrate, arginine, citruline, cysteine,
glycine, histidine,
L-leucine, isoleucine, lysine, treonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, benzoate, m- & o-hydroxybenzoate, L-serine, D-
and L-alanine & gluconate. Can use more than 100 different organic compounds as sole carbon source for growth.

Maltose, tartrate, mesaconate, erythritol, lactose, ethanol, are not utilized. Nitrate is reduced, denitrifcation does not occur. Arginine
dihydrolase, esculin hydrolysis are negative.

Sucrose utilization is variable, gelatin is hydrolyzed by some strains. Lecithinase variable.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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