Actinobacillus ureae
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pasteurellales, Family Pasteurellaceae, Genus Actinobacillus,  
Actinobacillus ureae
(Jones 1962) Mutters, Pohl and Mannheim 1986.
Synonyms:
Pasteurella ureae Jones 1962, Pasteurella haemolytica var. ureae Henriksen and Jyssum 1960.
Gram-negative, small, rod-shaped, pleomorphic depending on the growth medium, bipolar staining occasionally. Nonmotile.
Nonsporulated.
Sticky colonies. Growth is best on medium containing blood or serum.
Hemolysis is present on sheep blood agar.
Optimum temperature 37 ºC, range 20 - 40 ºC. Growth on MacConkey agar is positive.
V-factor independent.
Occurs infrequently in the nose of healthy humans.
Occasionally causes ozaena and other infections in the respiratory tract. Is a rare isolate from human bacteremia, endocarditis,
meningitis, bone-marrow infection, conjunctivitis, otitis media and peritonitis.
  1. Olsen I., MØller K., 2004. Genus II. Actinobacillus. In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition,Vol two, part B,
    George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp. 866-883.
  2. W.M. Janda, R. Mutters, 2006. Pasteurella, Mannheimia, Actinobacillus, Eikenella, Kingella, Capnocytophaga, and other
    miscellaneous Gram-negative rods. In: Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10 edition, Vol. 2, Bacteriology,
    Edward Arnold Ltd.
  3. J. G.Holt et al., 1994. Begey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9-edition, Williams & Wilkins.
  4. Mutters R., Pohl S. & Mannheim W.: Transfer of Pasteurella ureae Jones 1962 to the genus Actinobacillus Brumpt 1910:
    Actinobacillus ureae comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1986, 36, 343-344.
  5. 4.Carmen Pinzaru, 2009. Identificarea genurilor Pasteurella, Mannheimia, Actinobacillus. In: D. Buiuc, M. Negut (Ed.),Tratat de
    Microbiologie Clinica, Ed. Medicala, Bucuresti, 859-868.
  6. Buchanan R.E., Gibbons N.E. (co-editors), 1975. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, eight edition, The Williams &
    Wilkins Company, Baltimore.
Nitrates reduction, oxidase, alkaline phosphatase, catalase, urease, acid from D(+)
glucose, D(-) sorbitol, D(-) fructose, mannitol, maltose, sucrose (saccharose) &
dextrin are positive.

Gelatinase, Voges-Proskauer  reaction, arginine dehydrolase, lysine decarboxylase,
ornithine decarboxylase, indole, glycerol, L(+) arabinose, D(+) xylose, dulcitol,
meso-inositol, D(+) galactose, L(+) rhamnose, L(-) sorbose, cellobiose, lactose,
ONPG, melibiose, trehalose, raffinose, inulin, esculin, salicin & gas from D(+)
glucose are negative.

D(+) mannose fermentation is  variable.
(c) Costin Stoica
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