Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (pinpoint
colonies) dependent of V factor (NAD) - producing
Staphylococcus aureus (yellow line)
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pasteurellales, Family Pasteurellaceae, Genus Actinobacillus,  
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
Pohl, Bertschinger, Frederiksen and Mannheim 1983.
Biovar 1 (V-factor-dependent strains previously classified as
H. pleuropneumoniae;14 serovars) & Biovar 2 (V-factor-independent
strains).
Synonyms:
Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae Shope 1964.
Gram negative cells, nonmotile, nonspore-forming, small, and coccoid to rod-shaped,
occurring singly, in pairs, or in short chains.
Colonies are grayish white  and smooth on chocolate agar; 3 mm in diameter after 48
hours  in candle jar at 37 ºC.
Beta hemolysis, but may be very slight or absent. CAMP test is positive.
V-factor dependency is variable ( Biovar 1 (V-factor-dependent strains previously
classified as
H. pleuropneumoniae) & Biovar 2 (V-factor-independent strains)).
Aerobic, microaerophilic in primary isolation , facultatively anaerobic; no additional
CO
2 is required for growth in subculture.
Mesophilic. Chemoorganotrophic , with pronounced growth response to fermentable
carbohydrates in peptone media.
Growth on MacConkey agar is negative.
Biovar 1 causes the porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious respiratory infection.
Most efficient antibiotics against  
A. pleuropneumoniae strains isolated from diseased piglets in Romania were ampicillin, amoxicillin
&  gentamicin (100% of the tested strains were susceptible to this antibiotics).
Biovar 1 causes the porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious respiratory infection. This severe and often fatal (fibrinous)
hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia leds to significant economic losses.
A. pleuropneumoniae produces three RTX toxins (Apx I,II,III), transferrin-binding proteins and urease. Other virulence factors: capsular
polysaccharide, cellular lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane proteins.
  1. Olsen I., MØller K., 2004. Genus II. Actinobacillus. In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition,Vol two, part B,
    George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief),   pp. 866-883.
  2. W.M. Janda, R. Mutters, 2006. Pasteurella, Mannheimia, Actinobacillus, Eikenella, Kingella, Capnocytophaga, and other
    miscellaneous Gram-negative rods. In: Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10 edition, Vol. 2, Bacteriology,
    Edward Arnold Ltd.
  3. J. G.Holt et al., 1994. Begey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9-edition, Williams & Wilkins.
  4. Sorescu I., 2002, Pleuropneumonia infectioasa a porcului: date recente privind etiopatogeneza si imunoprofilaxia. Buletin
    informativ in patologie porcina, V, 1, 48-50.
  5. Sorescu I., Stoica C., Drăghici D.,Stănuică D., 2001. Sensibilitatea la antibiotice si chimioterapice a tulpinilor de E. coli,
    Salmonella choleraesuis grup C, Pasteurella multocida si Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae izolate de la porcine in intervalul  
    aprilie 2001 - septembrie 2001. Buletin informativ in patologie porcina, IV, 1, 23-27.
  6. Sorescu I., Stănuică D., Luminiţa Romaşcu, Vyan Zangana, 2002. Sensibilitatea la antibiotice şi chimioterapice a tulpinilor de
    Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis grup C, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia spp. (Pasteurella haemolytica),
    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis şi Streptococcus spp. izolate de la porcine în intervalul Ian-Oct 2002,
    Buletin informativ in patologie porcina,  V, 4, 3-8.
Nitrates reduction, alkaline phosphatase, H2S, D(+) xylose, mannitol, D(-) fructose,
urease, D(+) galactose, D(+) mannose, ONPG, maltose, sucrose (saccharose) &
D(+) glucose = positive.
Voges-Proskauer reaction, arginine dehydrolase, lysine decarboxylase, ornithine
decarboxylase, indole, glycerol, L(+) arabinose, dulcitol, meso-inositol, D(-) sorbitol,
L(+) rhamnose, L(-) sorbose, cellobiose, melibiose, trehalose, inulin, esculin, salicin
& gas from D(+) glucose = negative.

Oxidase, catalase, lactose & raffinose = variable.
(c) Costin Stoica
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