Arginine dehydrolase, lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase, indole, glycerol,  xylitol, L(+) arabinose, D(+) xylose, dulcitol,
meso-inositol, mannitol, D(-) sorbitol, D(+) mannose, L(+) rhamnose, L(-) sorbose, cellobiose, lactose, ONPG, D(+) melibiose,
trehalose, raffinose, inulin, esculin, salicin & α-glucosidase (PNPG) are negative.

Catalase, D(+) galactose & gas from D(+) glucose are variable.
Haemophilus parahaemolyticus
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pasteurellales, Family Pasteurellaceae, Genus Haemophilus,
Haemophilus  parahaemolyticus
 Pitman 1953.
Old synonyms:
Haemolytic influenza bacillus Fildes 1924, hemolytic strain Haemophilus parainfluenzae Valentine and Rivers 1927,
Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae White, Leidy, Jamieson and Shope 1964.
Gram negative pleomorphic  rods , filamentous forms.
Growth on chocolate agar is similar to that of H. parainfluenzae: colonies are grayish
white or yellowish opaque, 1-2 mm in diameter after 24 h. Some strains produce flat,
smooth colonies with entire edge, others show serrated edge and others produce
rough wrinkled colonies. Beta-hemolytic.
Aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, require V-factor but not X-factor for growth. CO
2 not
required for growth. Growth on Mac Conkey agar is negative.
Found in the upper respiratory tract of man, associated with various infections.
Produce an extracellular IgA1 protease related to the H. influenzae endopeptidase, which cleaving human IgA1.
Has been associated with acute pharyngitis, purulent oral infections, endocarditis, and exacerbation of chronic lower respiratory tract
infections.
  1. Mogens Kilian, 2004. Genus III. Haemophilus. In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition,Vol two, part B,
    George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief),   pp. 883-904.
  2. Mary P.E. Slack, 2006. Haemophilus. In: Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10 edition, Vol. 2, Bacteriology,
    Edward Arnold Ltd.
  3. J. G.Holt et al., 1994. Begey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9-edition, Williams & Wilkins.
  4. Zinnemann K., Biberstein E.L., 1975. Genus Haemophilus. In:Buchanan R.E., Gibbons N.E. (co-editors), Bergey’s  Manual of
    Determinative Bacteriology, eight edition, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore.
Nitrates reduction, oxidase, alkaline phosphatase, H2S, urease, acid from D(+)
glucose, D(-) fructose, maltose & sucrose (saccharose) are positive.
(c) Costin Stoica
Antibiogram
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