Avibacterium paragallinarum
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pasteurellales, Family Pasteurellaceae, Genus Avibacterium,  
Avibacterium paragallinarum Blackall, Christensen, Beckenham, Blackall and Bisgaard, 2005.
Old synonyms:
Haemophilus paragallinarum  Biberstein and White 1969, Haemophilus gallinarum  Delaplane, Erwin and Stuart
1934,
Bacillus haemoglobinophilus coryzae gallinarum  de Blieck 1931.
Coccoid to pleomorphic rods,  filamentous forms, nonmotile.
On chocolate agar: colonies  are smooth ,convex, grayish, semiopaque and reach
0.5-1.5 mm in 48 hours in air supplemented with 10% CO
2. Nonhemolytic. Strains
are
 V-factor dependent (occasional independent strains are Bisgaard Taxon 31)
Improved growth in an enriched CO
2 (10%) atmosphere and by serum added.
Growth on MacConkey is negative.
Present in the respiratory tract of poultry.
Produces neuraminidase and N-acetylneuraminate pyruvate lyase. Causes respiratory tract disease in chickens (infectious coryza).
  1. Mogens Kilian, 2004. Genus III. Haemophilus. In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition,Vol two, part B,
    George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief),   pp. 883-904.
  2. Mary P.E. Slack, 2006. Haemophilus. In: Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10 edition, Vol. 2, Bacteriology,
    Edward Arnold Ltd.
  3. J. G.Holt et al., 1994. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9-edition, Williams & Wilkins.
  4. P.J.Blackall, H.Christensen,T. Beckenham, L.Blackall and M.Bisgaard, 2005. Reclassification of Pasteurella gallinarum,
    [Haemophilus] paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium and Pasteurella volantium as Avibacterium gallinarum gen. nov., comb. nov.,
    Avibacterium paragallinarum comb. nov., Avibacterium avium comb. nov. and Avibacterium volantium comb. nov. International
    Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 55, 353-362.
Nitrates reduction, oxidase, acid from D(+) glucose, mannitol, D(-) fructose,  D(+)
mannose & sucrose (saccharose) are positive.

Catalase, gelatinase, H
2S (TSI), Voges-Proskauer, urease, arginine dehydrolase,
lysine decarboxylase, indole, glycerol, xylitol, L(+) arabinose, D(-) arabinose, dulcitol,
meso-inositol, D(+) galactose, L(+) rhamnose, L(-) sorbose, cellobiose, lactose,
ONPG, D(+) melibiose, trehalose, raffinose, inulin, esculin, salicin,
alpha-
glucosidase (PNPG) & gas from D(+) glucose
Ornithine decarboxylase, alkaline phosphatase, D(+) xylose, D(-) sorbitol, L(-) fucose, maltose & dextrin are variable.
(c) Costin Stoica
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