Avibacterium gallinarum
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pasteurellales, Family Pasteurellaceae, Genus Avibacterium,
Avibacterium gallinarum
Blackall, Christensen, Beckenham, Blackall and Bisgaard, 2005.
Basonym:
Pasteurella gallinarum  Hall, Heddleston, Legenhausen and Hughes, 1955.
Non-motile, Gram-negative, coccoid to rod shaped.
Nonhemolytic, 1,5 mm. in diameter, smooth, convex,  grayish,  colonies.  V-factor
independent growth, optimum temperature 36 ºC. Do not grow on MacConkey agar.
Isolated from different lesions in fowl and from pigs and rats. Primarily inhabits the respiratory tract of domestic fowl.  Also the
organism was recovered from blood culture of humans with endocarditis and gastroenteritis
Isolated from different lesions in fowl.
The organism was recovered from blood culture of humans with endocarditis and gastroenteritis.
  1. R. Mutters, H. Christensen, M. Bisgaard, 2004.Genus I.Pasteurella . In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second
    edition,Vol two, part B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief),   pp. 857-866.
  2. W.M. Janda, R. Mutters  , 2006. Pasteurella, Mannheimia, Actinobacillus, Eikenella, Kingella, Capnocytophaga, and other
    miscellaneous Gram-negative rods. In: Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10 edition, Vol. 2, Bacteriology,
    Edward Arnold Ltd.
  3. J. G.Holt et al., 1994.Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9-edition, Williams & Wilkins.
  4. H. Raducanescu, Valeria Bica-Popii, 1986.Bacteriologie veterinara. Editura Ceres, Bucuresti, p. 233.
  5. P.J.Blackall, H.Christensen,T. Beckenham, L.Blackall and M.Bisgaard, 2005. Reclassification of Pasteurella gallinarum,
    [Haemophilus] paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium and Pasteurella volantium as Avibacterium gallinarum gen. nov., comb. nov.,
    Avibacterium paragallinarum comb. nov., Avibacterium avium comb. nov. and Avibacterium volantium comb. nov.International
    Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 55, 353-362.
Nitrate, reduction, oxidase, alkaline phosphatase, catalase, indole, α-glucosidase
(PNPG) , D(+) galactose, D(+) glucose(acid), D(-) fructose, D(+) mannose, raffinose,
sucrose, trehalose, dextrin & maltose are positive.

Gelatinase, H2S (TSI), Voges-Proskauer, urease, arginine dehydrolase, lysine
decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase,  xylitol, L(+) arabinose, dulcitol, mannitol, D(-)
sorbitol, gas from glucose, L(+) rhamnose, L(-) sorbose, cellobiose, D(+) melibiose,  
inulin, esculin & salicin are negative.

Lactose, ONPG, raffinose, glycerol,  D(-) arabinose, D(+) xylose, meso-inositol, L(-)
fucose  are variable.
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