Avibacterium gallinarum colonies on sheep blood agar.
A. gallinarum Gram-stained cells.
Avibacterium gallinarum
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pasteurellales, Family
Pasteurellaceae, Genus Avibacterium,
Avibacterium gallinarum Blackall, Christensen,
Beckenham, Blackall & Bisgaard, 2005.

Basonym:
Pasteurella gallinarum  Hall, Heddleston, Legenhausen and Hughes, 1955.
Non-motile, Gram-negative, coccoid to rod shaped.
Nonhemolytic, 1.5 mm in diameter, smooth, convex, grayish, colonies. V-factor
independent growth, optimum temperature 36 ºC. Does not grow on MacConkey agar.
Isolated from different lesions in fowl and from pigs and rats. Primarily inhabits the
respiratory tract of domestic fowl.  Also, the organism was recovered from blood
culture of humans with endocarditis and gastroenteritis
Isolated from different lesions in fowl.
Recovered from blood culture of humans with endocarditis and gastroenteritis.
  1. R. Mutters, H. Christensen, M. Bisgaard, 2004. Genus I. Pasteurella. In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second
    edition, Vol two, part B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp. 857-866.
  2. W.M. Janda, R. Mutters, 2006. Pasteurella, Mannheimia, Actinobacillus, Eikenella, Kingella, Capnocytophaga, and other
    miscellaneous Gram-negative rods. In: Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10 edition, Vol. 2, Bacteriology,
    Edward Arnold Ltd.
  3. J. G. Holt et al., 1994. Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods. Subgroup 3. Family Pasteurellaceae. In: Begey’s Manual of
    Determinative Bacteriology, 9th-edition, Williams & Wilkins, pp 194-196.
  4. H. Raducanescu, Valeria Bica-Popii, 1986. Bacteriologie veterinara. Editura Ceres, Bucuresti, p. 233.
  5. P.J.Blackall, H.Christensen,T. Beckenham, L.Blackall and M.Bisgaard, 2005. Reclassification of Pasteurella gallinarum,
    [Haemophilus] paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium and Pasteurella volantium as Avibacterium gallinarum gen. nov., comb. nov.,
    Avibacterium paragallinarum comb. nov., Avibacterium avium comb. nov. and Avibacterium volantium comb. nov.International
    Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 55, 353-362.
Positive results for nitrate, reduction, oxidase, alkaline phosphatase, catalase, indole,
alpha-glucosidase, acid production from: D(+) galactose, D(+) glucose, D(-) fructose,
D(+) mannose, raffinose, sucrose, trehalose, dextrin & maltose.

Negative results for gelatinase, H
2S production (TSI), Voges-Proskauer test, urease,  
arginine dehydrolase, lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase, citrate utilization
(Simmons), acid production from: xylitol, L(+) arabinose, dulcitol, mannitol, D(-)
sorbitol, gas from glucose, L(+) rhamnose, L(-) sorbose, cellobiose, D(+) melibiose,
inulin, esculin & salicin.

Variable results for ONPG, acid production from: lactose, raffinose, glycerol,  D(-)
arabinose, D(+) xylose, meso-inositol, L(-) fucose.
(c) Costin Stoica
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