Avibacterium avium
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria, Order Pasteurellales, Family Pasteurellaceae, Genus Avibacterium,  
Avibacterium avium Blackall, Christensen, Beckenham, Blackall and Bisgaard, 2005.
Old synonyms:
Haemophilus avium Hinz and Kunjara 1977, Pasteurella avium (Hinz and Kunjara 1977) Mutters, Piechulla, Hinz, and
Mannheim 1985
Coccoid to pleomorphic rods, singly, short chains or filamentous forms, nonmotile.
Colonies on chocolate agar are smooth, slightly yellowish or grayish-white,
nonhemolytic.
-biotype 1 strains require  V-factor.
-biotype 2 strains are V-factor independent.
Growth on MacConkey is negative.
Have been isolated from hearts and infraorbital sinuses of chickens (biovar 1) and from  the lungs of calves with pneumonia (biovar 2).
Isolated from the lungs of calves with pneumonia (biovar 2).
  1. R. Mutters, H. Christensen, M. Bisgaard, 2004. Genus I. Pasteurella. In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second
    edition, Vol two, part B, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp. 857-866.
  2. W.M. Janda, R. Mutters, 2006. Pasteurella, Mannheimia, Actinobacillus, Eikenella, Kingella, Capnocytophaga, and other
    miscellaneous Gram-negative rods. In: Topley & Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10th edition, Vol. 2, Bacteriology,
    Edward Arnold Ltd.
  3. J. G. Holt et al., 1994. Facultatively Anaerobic Gram-Negative Rods. Subgroup 3. Family Pasteurellaceae. In: Begey’s Manual of
    Determinative Bacteriology, 9th-edition, Williams & Wilkins, pp 194-196.
  4. P. J. Blackall, H. Christensen, T. Beckenham, L. Blackall and M. Bisgaard, 2005. Reclassification of Pasteurella gallinarum,
    [Haemophilus] paragallinarum, Pasteurella avium and Pasteurella volantium as Avibacterium gallinarum gen. nov., comb. nov.,
    Avibacterium paragallinarum comb. nov., Avibacterium avium comb. nov. and Avibacterium volantium comb. nov.International
    Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 55, 353-362.
Positive results for nitrates reduction, oxidase, alkaline phosphatase, catalase, alpha-
glucosidase, acid production from: D(-) fructose, D(+) galactose,  D(+) glucose, D(+)
mannose, sucrose & trehalose.

Negative results for gelatinase, Voges-Proskauer, urease, arginine dehydrolase, lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase,
ONPG, indole production, acid production from: glycerol, xylitol, L(+) arabinose, D(-) arabinose, dulcitol, meso-inositol, mannitol, D(-)
sorbitol, L(-) fucose, L(+) rhamnose, L(-) sorbose, cellobiose, lactose, maltose, D(+) melibiose, raffinose, dextrin, inulin, esculin &
salicin.

D(+)xylose is variable. H
2S is positive, but negative on TSI. D(+) glucose is fermented without gas production.
(c) Costin Stoica
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