Beta-
hemolysis
Nitrate
reduction
Nitrite
reduction
Gas from
nitrite
H2S
production
K. kingae
+
-
-
-
d
K. denitrificans
-
+
+
+
-
K. oralis
-
-
d
-
+
K. potus
-
-
-
-
nd
Differential characters of Kingella species:
Colonies are round with slightly irregular borders and flat to umbonate, and each
colony has a granular periphery. Colonies appear
to corrode the agar surface. Aerobic
or facultatively anaerobic. Growth is supported by 5% sheep blood agar
supplemented with 5 mg of hemin per liter and 0.5 μg of menadione per ml in both
anaerobic and aerobic environments with CO
2. Hemolysis is not produced. Does not
grow on MacConkey agar. Optimal growth temperature is 33-37 ºC. No growth at 45
ºC. No growth in the presence of 6% NaCl.
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Neisseriales, Family Neisseriaceae, Genus Kingella, Kingella oralis corrig.
Dewhirst et al. 1993.
Rods or coccobacilli approximately 0.6-0.7 μm in diameter, by 1-3 μm long with
rounded ends . Has the tendency to resist Gram-decolorization. Occur in pairs and
chains.  Cells have monopolar fimbriae up to 10 μm long. Endospores are not
formed. Not motile by means of flagella, but cells form spreading colonies.
Isolated from the oral cavity of humans.
Undetermined.
  1. Tone Tonjum, 2005. Order IV. Neisseriales ord. nov. In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition, Vol two, part C
    The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 774-863.
  2. Paul A. Lawson, Henry Malnick, Matthew D. Collins, Jayesh J. Shah, Marie A. Chattaway, Richard Bendall, and John W. Hartley:
    Description of Kingella potus sp. nov., an Organism Isolated from a Wound Caused by an Animal Bite. J. Clin. Microbiol. July 2005
    43:7 3526-3529; doi:10.1128/JCM.43.7.3526-3529.2005.
  3. Dewhirst F, Chen C, Paster B, Zambon: Phylogeny of Species in the Family Neisseriaceae Isolated from Human Dental Plaque and
    Description of Kingella orale sp. nov. J. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 43(3):490-499.
Positive results for alkaline phosphatase, H2S production (acetate strips), oxidase, acid production from glucose (weak).

Negative results for arginine dihydrolase, catalase, citrate utilization, coagulated serum liquefaction, esculin hydrolysis, gelatin
liquefaction, indole production, nitrate reduction, gas production from nitrite, lysine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase, urease,
acid production from:
lactose, maltose, mannitol, sucrose & xylose.

Variable results for nitrite reduction.
Kingella oralis
(c) Costin Stoica
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Yellow
pigment
DN-ase
activity
Phosphatase
activity
Glucose
fermentation
Maltose
fermentation
K. kingae
-
-
+
+
+
K. denitrificans
-
d
-
+
-
K. oralis
-
nd
+
+
-
K. potus
+
+
-
-
-
Legend:  + positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%, [+] positive 75-89%, [-] negative 75-89%, d positive 25-74% of strains, nd unknown