Beta-
hemolysis
Nitrate
reduction
Nitrite
reduction
Gas from
nitrite
H2S
production
K. kingae
+
-
-
-
d
K. denitrificans
-
+
+
+
-
K. oralis
-
-
d
-
+
K. potus
-
-
-
-
nd
Differential characters of Kingella species:
Colonies are delicate, translucent or slightly opaque, 0.1-0.6 mm in diameter after 20 h incubation on blood agar. Usually low
hemispherical, smooth, but occasionally flat with some pitting of the agar surface, or of a mucoid appearance. No pigment produced.
Consistency soft or coherent, in the latter case showing transient spontaneous agglutination in saline. Colonies surrounded by
distinct zones of beta-haemolysis. Grow best aerobically, but can grow weakly in anaerobic conditions (aerobic, facultatively
anaerobic). Optimal growth temperature is 33-37 ºC. No growth at 5 or 45 ºC. Poor growth on simple media, but enhanced by adding
blood or serum. No growth on MacConkey agar. No growth in the presence of 6% NaCl. No poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate inclusions.
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Neisseriales, Family Neisseriaceae, Genus Kingella, Kingella kingae
(Henriksen and Bovre 1968) Henriksen and Bovre 1976 - type species of the genus.

Synonyms:
Moraxella kingii Henriksen and Bovre 1968, Moraxella kingae Bovre et al. 1974.
Gram-negative, straight rods, 0.6-1.0 to 1.0 to 3.0 μm, with rounded or square ends. Has the tendency to resist Gram-decolorization.
Occur in pairs and sometimes in short chains. Endospores are not formed. Nonmotile, but may be fimbriated (piliated) and show
twitching motility.
Isolated from the oral cavity of humans and from clinical samples. Susceptible to penicillin (1.0 U/ml).
Produce invasive infections, especially in children less than 2 years of age. Septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, septicemia, or endocarditis
were reported. It occurs as sequelae to viral infections, with the viral agents presumably compromising mucosal immunity.
  1. Tone Tonjum, 2005. Order IV. Neisseriales ord. nov. In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition, Vol two, part C
    The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 774-863.
  2. Henriksen (S.D.) and Bovre (K.): Moraxella kingii sp. nov., a haemolytic saccharolytic species of the genus Moraxella. Journal of
    General Microbiology, 1968, 51, 377-385.
  3. Henriksen (S.D.) and Bovre (K.): Transfer of Moraxella kingae Henriksen and Bovre to the genus Kingella gen. nov. in the family
    Neisseriaceae. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 1976, 26, 447-450.
  4. Paul A. Lawson, Henry Malnick, Matthew D. Collins, Jayesh J. Shah, Marie A. Chattaway, Richard Bendall, and John W. Hartley:
    Description of Kingella potus sp. nov., an Organism Isolated from a Wound Caused by an Animal Bite. J. Clin. Microbiol. July 2005
    43:7 3526-3529; doi:10.1128/JCM.43.7.3526-3529.2005.
Positive results for casein digestion, phosphatase, oxidase, acid production from glucose & maltose.

Negative results for arginine dihydrolase, catalase, citrate utilization, coagulated serum liquefaction, DN-ase, esculin hydrolysis,
ONPG (beta-galactosidase), gelatin hydrolysis, indole production, lecithinase, lysine decarboxylase, nitrate reduction, nitrite reduction,
gas production from nitrite, ornithine decarboxylase, starch hydrolysis, Tween 20 hydrolysis, Tween 80 hydrolysis, urease, acid
production from: adonitol, L-arabinose, cellobiose, dextrin, dulcitol, ethanol, fructose, D-galactose, glycerol, i-inositol, lactose,
D-mannitol, D-mannose, raffinose, L-rhamnose, salicin, D-sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose & D-xylose.

Variable results for
H2S production.
Kingella kingae
(c) Costin Stoica
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Yellow
pigment
DN-ase
activity
Phosphatase
activity
Glucose
fermentation
Maltose
fermentation
K. kingae
-
-
+
+
+
K. denitrificans
-
d
-
+
-
K. oralis
-
nd
+
+
-
K. potus
+
+
-
-
-
Legend:  + positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%, [+] positive 75-89%, [-] negative 75-89%, d positive 25-74% of strains, nd unknown