Yellow
pigment
DN-ase
activity
Phosphatase
activity
Glucose
fermentation
Maltose
fermentation
Kingella kingae
-
-
+
+
+
Kingella
denitrificans
-
d
-
+
-
Kingella oralis
-
nd
+
+
-
Kingella potus
+
+
-
-
-
 
Beta-
hemolysis
Nitrate
reduction
Nitrite
reduction
Gas from
nitrite
H2S
production
Kingella kingae
+
-
-
-
d
Kingella
denitrificans
-
+
+
+
-
Kingella oralis
-
-
d
-
+
Kingella potus
-
-
-
-
nd
Differential characters of Kingella species:
Legend:  + positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%, [+] positive 75-89%, [-] negative 75-89%, d positive 25-74% of strains, nd unknown
Two types of colonies occur on blood agar: (a) a spreading, corroding type associated
with twitching motility, and (b) a smooth, convex type not showing twitching motility,
fimbriation, or competence. Grow best aerobically, but can grow weakly in anaerobic
conditions (aerobic, facultatively anaerobic). Optimal growth temperature is 33-37 ºC.
No growth at 5 or 45 ºC. Beta-hemolysis is not produced. Poor growth on simple
media, but enhanced by adding blood or serum. No growth on MacConkey agar. No
growth in the presence of 6% NaCl. No poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate inclusions.
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Neisseriales, Family Neisseriaceae, Genus Kingella, Kingella denitrificans
Snell and Lapage 1976, emend. Hollis et al. 1983.
Gram-negative, straight rods, 0.6-1.0 to 1.0 to 3.0 μm, with rounded or square ends.
Has the tendency to resist Gram-decolorization. Occur in pairs and sometimes in
short chains. Endospores are not formed. Nonmotile, but may be fimbriated (piliated)
and show twitching motility.
Isolated from the oral cavity of humans. Susceptible to penicillin (1.0 U/ml).
Belongs to the normal flora of the human pharynx and is generally considered to be of low pathogenicity. Rare cases of endocarditis
and a case of granulomatous disease in an AIDS patient have been reported.
  1. Tone Tonjum, 2005. Order IV. Neisseriales ord. nov. In:  Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition, Vol two, part C
    The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 774-863.
  2. D. G. Hollis, R. E. Weaver, and P. S. Riley: Emended description of Kingella denitrificans (Snell and Lapage 1976): correction of the
    maltose reaction. J. Clin. Microbiol. November 1983 18:5 1174-1176.
  3. Paul A. Lawson, Henry Malnick, Matthew D. Collins, Jayesh J. Shah, Marie A. Chattaway, Richard Bendall, and John W. Hartley:
    Description of Kingella potus sp. nov., an Organism Isolated from a Wound Caused by an Animal Bite. J. Clin. Microbiol. July 2005
    43:7 3526-3529; doi:10.1128/JCM.43.7.3526-3529.2005.
Positive results for nitrate reduction, nitrite reduction, gas production from nitrite, oxidase, acid production from glucose.

Negative results for arginine dihydrolase, casein digestion, catalase, citrate utilization, coagulated serum liquefaction, esculin
hydrolysis, ONPG (beta-galactosidase), gelatin hydrolysis, H
2S production, indole production, lecithinase, lysine decarboxylase,
ornithine decarboxylase, phosphatase, starch hydrolysis, Tween 80 hydrolysis, urease, acid production from: adonitol, L-arabinose,
cellobiose, dulcitol, ethanol, fructose, D-galactose, glycerol, i-inositol, lactose, maltose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, raffinose,
L-rhamnose, salicin, D-sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose & D-xylose.

Variable results for DN-ase, Tween 20 hydrolysis, acid production from dextrin.
Kingella denitrificans
(c) Costin Stoica
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