Differential characters of Kingella species:
Legend: + positive 90-100%, - negative 90-100%, [+] positive 75-89%, [-] negative 75-89%, d positive 25-74% of strains, nd unknown
Two types of colonies occur on blood agar: (a) a spreading, corroding type associated
with twitching motility, and (b) a smooth, convex type not showing twitching motility,
fimbriation, or competence. Grow best aerobically, but can grow weakly in anaerobic
conditions (aerobic, facultatively anaerobic). Optimal growth temperature is 33-37 ºC.
No growth at 5 or 45 ºC. Beta-hemolysis is not produced. Poor growth on simple
media, but enhanced by adding blood or serum. No growth on MacConkey agar. No
growth in the presence of 6% NaCl. No poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate inclusions.
Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Betaproteobacteria, Order Neisseriales, Family Neisseriaceae, Genus Kingella, Kingella denitrificans
Snell and Lapage 1976, emend. Hollis et al. 1983.
Gram-negative, straight rods, 0.6-1.0 to 1.0 to 3.0 μm, with rounded or square ends.
Has the tendency to resist Gram-decolorization. Occur in pairs and sometimes in
short chains. Endospores are not formed. Nonmotile, but may be fimbriated (piliated)
and show twitching motility.
Isolated from the oral cavity of humans. Susceptible to penicillin (1.0 U/ml).
Belongs to the normal flora of the human pharynx and is generally considered to be of low pathogenicity. Rare cases of endocarditis
and a case of granulomatous disease in an AIDS patient have been reported.
- Tone Tonjum, 2005. Order IV. Neisseriales ord. nov. In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second edition, Vol two, part C
The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, George M. Garrity (Editor-in-Chief), pp 774-863.
- D. G. Hollis, R. E. Weaver, and P. S. Riley: Emended description of Kingella denitrificans (Snell and Lapage 1976): correction of the
maltose reaction. J. Clin. Microbiol. November 1983 18:5 1174-1176.
- Paul A. Lawson, Henry Malnick, Matthew D. Collins, Jayesh J. Shah, Marie A. Chattaway, Richard Bendall, and John W. Hartley:
Description of Kingella potus sp. nov., an Organism Isolated from a Wound Caused by an Animal Bite. J. Clin. Microbiol. July 2005
43:7 3526-3529; doi:10.1128/JCM.43.7.3526-3529.2005.
Positive results for nitrate reduction, nitrite reduction, gas production from nitrite, oxidase, acid production from glucose.
Negative results for arginine dihydrolase, casein digestion, catalase, citrate utilization, coagulated serum liquefaction, esculin
hydrolysis, ONPG (beta-galactosidase), gelatin hydrolysis, H2S production, indole production, lecithinase, lysine decarboxylase,
ornithine decarboxylase, phosphatase, starch hydrolysis, Tween 80 hydrolysis, urease, acid production from: adonitol, L-arabinose,
cellobiose, dulcitol, ethanol, fructose, D-galactose, glycerol, i-inositol, lactose, maltose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, raffinose,
L-rhamnose, salicin, D-sorbitol, sucrose, trehalose & D-xylose.
Variable results for DN-ase, Tween 20 hydrolysis, acid production from dextrin.
(c) Costin Stoica