L. garvieae, Gram-stained cells
L. garvieae colonies on Sheep Blood Agar
Lactococcus garvieae
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Streptococcaceae, Genus Lactococcus, Lactococcus garvieae
(Collins et al. 1984) Schleifer et al. 1986.
Streptococcus garvieae Collins et al. 1984.
Some strains react with Lancefield group N antisera.

According to Teixeira et al. 1996,
Enterococcus seriolicida Kusuda et al. 1991 is a later
heterotypic synonym of
Lactococcus garvieae (Collins et al. 1984) Schleifer et al. 1986.
Gram-positive ovoid cells elongated in the direction of the chain. Grouped mostly in
pairs or short chains. Nonmotile. Endospores are not formed.
Colonies on blood agar or nutrient agar are nonpigmented, circular, smooth, and
entire. Not beta-hemolytic in the original paper, but one strain isolated from diseased
trout was beta-hemolytic (admin note). Reports of alpha-hemolytic strains. Grow at 10
and 40 ºC but not at 45 ºC (thus slowly growing at 45 ºC was reported). Grow in 0.1%
methylene blue milk and reduce it. Grow in 4% NaCl. Facultatively anaerobic.
Isolated from trout, raw milk, waste whey, the skin and saliva of cows, soil, and grass.
Rarely isolated from humans. Former
Enterococcus seriolicida strains were isolated
from subclinical mastitis in water buffalos. Susceptible to Vancomycin.
Produce hemorrhagic septicemia (lactococcosis) in farmed trout and mastitis in cows and buffalos.
Rare human pathogens, with only a few cases reported (endocarditis).
  1. Michael Teuber, 2009. Genus II. Lactococcus Schleifer, Kraus, Dvorak, Kilpper-Balz, Collins and Fischer 1986, 354 VP. In: (Eds.) P.
    D. Vos, G. Garrity, D. Jones, N.R. Krieg, W. Ludwig, F.A. Rainey, K.-H. Schleifer, W.B. Whitman. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic
    Bacteriology, Volume 3: The Firmicutes, Springer, 711-722.
  2. M. D. Collins, J. A. E. Farrow, B. A. Phillips, and O. Kandler. Streptococcus garvieae sp. nov. and Streptococcus plantarum sp. nov.
    J Gen Microbiol November 1983 129:3427-3431.
  3. Sakala RM, Hayashidani H, Kato Y, Kaneuchi C, Ogawa M. Isolation and characterization of Lactococcus piscium strains from
    vacuum-packaged refrigerated beef. J Appl Microbiol. 2002;92(1):173-9.
  4. Lucia M. Teixeira, Vania Lucia C. Merquior, Maria Da Conceicao E. Vianni,  Maria Da Gloria S. Carvalho, Sergio E. L. Fracalanzza,  
    Arnold G. Steigerwalt, Don J. Brenner, and Richard R. Facklam. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Atypical Lactococcus
    garvieae Strains Isolated from Water Buffalos with Subclinical Mastitis and Confirmation of L. garvieae as a Senior Subjective
    Synonym of Enterococcus seriolicida. Int J Syst Bacteriol July 1996 46:664-668.
  5. Maria Eugenia Navas, Geraldine Hall, and Dalia El Bejjani 2013. Lactococcus garvieae: A Case Report and Suggested Methods
    for Identification. J. Clin. Microbiol. JCM.03400-12.
Positive results for arginine dehydrolase, esculin hydrolysis, beta-glucuronidase,
leucine arylamidase, pyrrolidonylarylamidase, acid production from:
N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, beta-gentiobiose, glucose, fructose, cellobiose,
amygdalin, arbutin, lactose, mannose, ribose, salicin & trehalose.

Negative results for alkaline phosphatase, catalase, alpha-galactosidase (positive
strain reported), beta-galactosidase (positive strain reported), starch hydrolysis,
oxidase, acid production from: D- or L-arabinose, D- or L-arabitol, adonitol, 2- or
5-ketogluconate, dulcitol, erythritol, D- or L-fucose, glycogen, glycerol, inulin, inositol,
melibiose, melezitose, beta-methylxyloside, alpha-methyl-D-glucoside,
alpha-methyl-D-mannoside, D-lyxose, raffinose, rhamnose, L-sorbose, sorbitol,
D-turanose, xylitol, D- or L-xylose.

Variable results for hippurate hydrolysis, acid production from: maltose, mannitol,
sucrose & D-tagatose.

Admin note: weak positive reactions were found  for the acidification of ribose,
mannitol and starch in one strain isolated from trout.
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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