Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Enterococcaceae, Genus Enterococcus, Enterococcus villorum  
Vancanneyt et al. 2001. Lancefield group D.
According to De Graef et al. 2003,
Enterococcus villorum Vancanneyt et al. 2001 is an earlier heterotypic synonym of Enterococcus
Teixeira et al. 2001.
Gram-positive cocci, non-spore-forming and non-motile.
Colonies grow on azide-containing enterococcal selective media, on bile-aesculin
agar and in 6.5% NaCl broth. Colonies on Slanetz-Bartley medium are pink and
develop slowly. Alpha-haemolytic. Grows at 10-45 ºC.
Isolated from the intestines and faeces of pigs with diarrhoea and from birds. Susceptible to tobramycin. E. porcinus strains
were susceptible to vancomycin and efrotomycin.
Associated with neonatal diarrhoea in piglets.
  1. Pavel Svec and  Luc A. Devriese, 2009: Genus I. Enterococcus (ex Thiercelin and Jouhaud 1903) Schleifer and Kilpper-Bälz 1984,
    32VP in Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition, Volume Three, Vos, P.D.; Garrity, G.; Jones, D.; Krieg, N.R.;
    Ludwig, W.; Rainey, F.A.; Schleifer, K.-H.; Whitman, W.B. (Eds.), pp 594-606.
  2. M Vancanneyt, C Snauwaert, I Cleenwerck, M Baele, P Descheemaeker, H Goossens, B Pot, P Vandamme, J Swings, F
    Haesebrouck, and L A Devriese: Enterococcus villorum sp. nov., an enteroadherent bacterium associated with diarrhoea in
    piglets. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol March 2001 51:393-400.
  3. De Graef, E. M., Devriese, L. A., Vancanneyt, M., Baele, M., Collins, M. D., Lefebvre, K., Swings, J., Haesebrouck, F. Description of
    Enterococcus canis sp. nov. from dogs and reclassification of Enterococcus porcinus Teixeira et al. 2001 as a junior synonym of
    Enterococcus villorum Vancanneyt et al. 2001. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2003 53: 1069-1074.
  4. L M Teixeira, M G Carvalho, M M Espinola, A G Steigerwalt, M P Douglas, D J Brenner, and R R Facklam. Enterococcus porcinus
    sp. nov. and Enterococcus ratti sp. nov., associated with enteric disorders in animals. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol September 2001 51:
Positive results for Voges-Proskauer, beta-glucosidase, pyrrolidonylarylamidase,
leucine arylamidase, arginine dihydrolase, glycyl tryptophan arylamidase, hydrolysis of
aesculin, beta-D-glucoside, N-acetyl beta-D-glucosaminide, L-phenylalanine 7-amido-
4-methyl-coumarin, L-pyroglutamic acid, L-tryptophan, p-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucoside,
p-nitrophenyl beta-D-cellobioside, o-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactoside, p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactoside, acid production from:
amygdalin, arbutin, cellobiose, glycerol (after 2 days), D-glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, D-fructose, galactose, beta-gentiobiose,
lactose, maltose, D-mannose, melibiose, ribose, salicin & trehalose.

Negative results for catalase, hippurate hydrolysis, alkaline phosphatase, beta-glucuronidase, beta-mannosidase,
alanine-phenylalanine-proline arylamidase, hydrolysis of L-valine, L-isoleucine, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, proline- or
leucine-p-nitroanilide, urease, acid production from: adonitol, D- or L- arabitol, D- or L-arabinose, D-cyclodextrin, 2- or
5-ketogluconate, dulcitol, erythritol, D- or L-fucose, methyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, gluconate, glycogen, inositol, inulin, D-lyxose,
maltotriose, mannitol, alpha-methyl D-mannoside, melezitose, pullulan, rhamnose, sorbitol, L-sorbose, D-tagatose, xylitol, L-xylose &
beta-methyl D-xyloside.

Variable results for: p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoside, acid production from: alpha methyl D-glucoside, D-xylose, raffinose & sucrose.
Enterococcus villorum
(c) Costin Stoica
Culture media
Biochemical tests
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