Vagococcus salmoninarum
Taxonomy
Morphology
Cultural characteristics
Biochemical characters
Ecology
Pathogenicity
References
Phylum Firmicutes, Class Bacilli, Order Lactobacillales, Family Enterococcaceae, Genus Vagococcus, Vagococcus salmoninarum
Wallbanks et al. 1990.
Gram-positive ovoid cells or short rods (the shape varies with cultural conditions)
occurring as single cells, in pairs or in short chains. Non-motile.
Growth occurs at 5 and 30 ºC but not at 40 ºC. Facultatively anaerobic. No gas is
produced from glucose.
It is considered not to grow in 6.5% NaCl, but was reported
growth at this salt concentration. Alpha-haemolytic on horse or sheep blood agar.
Isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in USA and Europe. Also isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow
trout in Tasmania and Australia and brown trout (
Salmo trutta) in Norway, with peritonitis.
Susceptible to ampicillin, cefotaxime, trimethylprim-sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. Resistant to clindamycin, lomefloxacin, and
ofloxacin.
Produce the 'coldwater streptococcosis’ disease in rainbow trout, causing mortality rates up to 50% in broodstock during the
spawning period, with water temperature of 10-12 ºC.
Isolated from brown trout with peritonitis.
  1. Wallbanks (S.), Martinez-Murcia (A.J.), Fryer (J.L.), Phillips (B.A.) and Collins (M.D.): 16S rRNA sequence determination for
    members of the genus Carnobacterium and related lactic acid bacteria and description of Vagococcus salmoninarum sp. nov. Int.
    J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1990, 40, 224-230.
  2. Ruiz-Zarzuela I, de Bias I, Girones O, Ghittino C, Muazquiz JL (2005). "Isolation of Vagococcus salmoninarum in rainbow trout,
    Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), broodstocks: characterization of the pathogen". Vet Res Commun. 29 (7): 553–62. doi:10.1007
    /s11259-005-2493-8. PMID 16142604.
  3. Killer, J., Svec, P., Sedlaccek, I., Cernohlavkova, J., Benada, O., Hroncova, Z., Havlik, J., Vlkova, E., Rada, V., Kopecny, J. and
    Kofronova, O. 2014. Vagococcus entomophilus sp. nov., from the digestive tract of a wasp (Vespula vulgaris). Int. J. Syst. Evol.
    Microbiol., 64, 731-737.
  4. Leon M.T. Dicks, Wilhelm. H. Holzapfel, Masataka Satomi, Bon Kimura and Tateo Fujii, 2009: Genus III. Tetragenococcus Collins,
    Williams and Wallbanks 1993, 188VP. In Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition, Volume Three, Vos, P.D.;
    Garrity, G.; Jones, D.; Krieg, N.R.; Ludwig, W.; Rainey, F.A.; Schleifer, K.-H.; Whitman, W.B. (Eds.), pp 611-616.
Positive results for esculin hydrolysis, H2S production, acid production from:
amygdalin, arbutin, N-acetylglucosamine, cellobiose, fructose, beta-gentiobiose,
glucose, mannose, alpha-methyl-D-glucoside, ribose, salicin, starch, D-tagatose & trehalose.

Negative results for arginine dihydrolase,
alkaline phosphatase (or weak reaction), catalase, alpha- and beta-galactosidase, beta-
glucuronidase, indole production,
nitrate reduction, oxidase, urease, Voges-Proskauer test, acid production from: D- and L-arabinose,
D-
and L-arabitol, adonitol, dulcitol, erythritol, D- and L-fucose , galactose, gluconate, glycogen, glycerol, 2-ketogluconate, 5-
ketogluconate, inulin, inositol, lactose, D-lyxose, melibiose, melezitose, methyl-xyloside, methylD-mannoside, mannitol, rhamnose,
raffinose, sorbose, sorbitol, D-turanose, D-
and L-xylose & xylitol.

Variable results for acid production from maltose & sucrose.
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